Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management

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  • 1.
    Fonselius, Stig H.
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Government Agencies, Fiskeristyrelsen.
    Hydrography of the Baltic Deep Basins1962Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The measurements made during the last 50 years and the salinity increase of the Baltic are described. The transport of bottom water between the basins, the salt inflows and the stagnation periods are discussed. The great salt inflow of 1952 and the long stagnation which followed it are described in detail. The conditions during 1960 and the turnover of the water in the Gotland basin in 1961 are discussed and described. The accumulation of nutrient salts in the Gotland basin during the stagnation is described and the conditions are compared to other anoxic basins. The analysis method for hydrogen sulphide is described. The development of the stagnation in the Gotland basin is traced in detail. The speed of the inflow is discussed.

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  • 2.
    Fonselius, Stig H.
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Government Agencies, Fiskeristyrelsen.
    Hydrography Of The Baltic Deep Basins II1967Report (Other academic)
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  • 3. Jerlov, N.G.
    Summer Temperature and Salinity at the Swedish Lightship »Fladen»1953Report (Other academic)
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  • 4.
    Koczy, F.F.
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Government Agencies, Fiskeristyrelsen.
    Korrektion av djupbestämning med ekolod1956Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den tekniska utvecklingen på fiskets område och den allt större användningen av flyttrålen i våra fiskevatten nödvändiggör en noggrann bestämning av de djup i vilka fiskstimmen uppehåller sig. De hydrografiska förhållandena i våra fiskevatten varierar starkt med årstiderna och på olika fiskeområden och påverkar därigenom noggrannheten av djupbestämningen.Det synes därför påkallat att uppställa tabeller för korrektioner på de av ekoloden erhållna djupangivelserna.

    Inom ett och samma område är variationen med årstiden liten, avvikelserna uppgår maximalt till 2 %. Stora skillnader uppträder däremot mellan djupbestämning i Nordsjön och i Östersjön, då salthalten är resp. 35 %o och5 °/oo. Maximala felet kan här bli 6 % d.v.s. 6 m vid lödning i 100 m djup. Felet är så stort att det måste tas hänsyn till vid trålning.

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  • 5.
    Svansson, Artur
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Government Agencies, Fiskeristyrelsen.
    Canal Models of Sea Level and Salinity Variations in the Baltic and Adjacent Waters1972Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many years ago the present author started work on sea level (SL) problems (Svansson 1959). The Skagerrak, the Kattegat, the Belt Sea and the Baltic were treated as canals. Sea levels and water transports were computed by numerical integration (an explicit method), the sectioning being mostly copied from Neumann (1941). Later the method was improved (Svansson 1966 and 1968) but only some parts of the area were included.

    In this paper the results of the numerical computations of sea levels and transports hitherto published by the present author are summarized (Ch. 25). Then work with another numerical method, an implicit one allowing longtime steps applied on a simple system of canals, is presented (Ch. 26). Furthermore this model is combined with a model for salinity variations, among other things used in an attempt to explain an interesting connection between the variations of the sea level of the Baltic and of the salinity of the Kattegat. The mathematical background and the numerical scheme will be found in Chapters 21—23, while Chapter 1 is a descriptive part presenting background information.

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  • 6.
    Hydrographical Observations on Swedish Lightships and Fjord Stations in 19641966Report (Other academic)
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  • 7.
    Hydrographical Observations on Swedish Lightships and Fjord Stations in 19651967Report (Other academic)
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  • 8.
    Hydrographical Observations on Swedish Lightships and Fjord Stations in 19661968Report (Other academic)
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  • 9.
    Hydrographical Observations on Swedish Lightships and Fjord Stations in 19671969Report (Other academic)
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  • 10.
    Hydrographical Observations on Swedish Lightships and Fjord Stations in 19681970Report (Other academic)
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  • 11.
    Hydrographical Observations on Swedish Lightships and Fjord Stations in 19691971Report (Other academic)
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  • 12.
    Hydrographical observations on Swedish lightships in 19511953Report (Other academic)
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  • 13.
    Hydrographical Observations on Swedish Lightships in 19521954Report (Other academic)
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  • 14.
    Hydrographical Observations on Swedish Lightships in 19531954Report (Other academic)
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  • 15.
    Hydrographical Observations on Swedish Lightships in 19541955Report (Other academic)
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  • 16.
    Hydrographical Observations on Swedish Lightships in 19551956Report (Other academic)
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  • 17.
    Hydrographical Observations on Swedish Lightships in 19561957Report (Other academic)
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  • 18.
    Hydrographical Observations on Swedish Lightships in 19571958Report (Other academic)
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  • 19.
    Hydrographical Observations on Swedish Lightships in 19581959Report (Other academic)
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  • 20.
    Hydrographical Observations on Swedish Lightships in 19591961Report (Other academic)
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  • 21.
    Hydrographical Observations on Swedish Lightships in 19601962Report (Other academic)
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  • 22.
    Hydrographical Observations on Swedish Lightships in 19611963Report (Other academic)
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  • 23.
    Hydrographical Observations on Swedish Lightships in 19621964Report (Other academic)
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  • 24.
    Hydrographical Observations on Swedish Lightships in 19631965Report (Other academic)
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  • 25.
    Hydrography of the Baltic Deep Basins III1969Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The major theme of this paper is the trend towards stagnation of the deepwater basins of the Baltic proper.

    Samples of Baltic water were taken from established stations periodically from the beginning of the century and these measurements constitute the data for this study.

    Certain peculiarities of the Baltic’s topography are shown to produce two water layers which are separated by a permanent halocline which impedes the mixing of the water layers.

    Data from measurements at various Baltic stations illustrate a salinity increase in the Baltic in the present century. This salinity increase is considered to be the most significant factor contributing to the oxygen deficit of the Baltic’s deep water. It is shown that the salinity increase raises the halocline’s stability. The existence of a halocline implies that very little oxygen from the aerated surface water can penetrate through the halocline to the deep water. Oxygen in the deep water is exhausted through oxidation processes. Increased salinity is shown to make the halocline even less permeable to the mixing down of oxygen from the surface.

    An analysis of phosphorus data in Baltic sea water for the present century shows a phosphate increase in the deep and surface waters. This increase is shown to have increased primary production and through this to have increased oxygen consumption in the deep water because greater amounts of decaying matter sink down into the deep water.

    It is shown that once a body of water becomes stagnant the condition tends to perpetuate itself and worsen. This is because inflowing water of a lower density than the stagnant water passes over the stagnant water and because when new water does penetrate, its oxygen quickly reacts with the H2S present in the stagnant water and is consumed.The reasons for the increace in salinity and phosphorus (the causes of the stagnation development) are discussed. The salinity increase is influenced by meteorological factors and the reasons why it occurred are: the decreased runoff to the Baltic from the rivers which discharge into it, the decreased water exchange through the Danish sounds and the increased intensity of the bottom current in the Belts and Kattegat.

    The reasons for the increase in phosphorus are that the increased H2S in the Baltic creates reducing conditions which cause phosphorus to be released from the bottom sediments and from inorganic particulate matter and that there is a great amount of phosphorusin the sewage water which is emptied into the Baltic.

    The implication of the findings is that if there is a continuation of the trends toward increased salinity and phosphorus concentration in the Baltic, the sea’s deep water shall soon become devoid of organic life.

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  • 26.
    Medelvärden av temperatur och salthalt vid svenska fyrskepp 1923-1952: Monthly average values of hydrographical observations on Swedish lightships 1923—19521955Report (Other academic)
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1 - 26 of 26
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