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  • 1. Brundin, Lars
    Chironomiden und andere bodentiere der südschwedischen urgebirgsseen: Ein beitrag zur kenntnis der bodenfaunistischen charakterzüge schwedischer oligotropher seen1949Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Problems. Methods. Material.

    There are more than 85000 lakes in Sweden, the majority of which belong to the oligotrophic type sensu Naumann, and which present an inexhaustible field for investigation. In view of the varied and complicated nature of the problems and the young age of limnological science it is natural that the knowledge of these lakes in spite of the efforts of many investigators should still be fragmentary. This holds good also of the bottom fauna which in many respects is so important.

    When, in 1941—1942, I was working on a quantitative material of bottom animals from oligotrophic lakes in Jämtland, North Sweden, this lack of data was strongly felt. There was no solid holding-ground for a comparison with other lakes in Sweden, and many factors indicated that the production of the bottom animals in oligotrophic lakes in Sweden was considerably underestimated, probably because of the methods not being quite satisfactory. Particularly conflicting results had been reached by previous investigators as regards the influence of the humic standard on the bottom fauna, which is a vital problem concerning the Swedish lakes. As regards the chironomids constituting, as is well known, the most important group among the bottom animals in the Swedish lakes, our almost complete lack of knowledge was most deeply felt. It was clear that a real understanding of the relationship between the different laketypes and the profundal fauna could only be obtained by determining the species represented by the chironomid larvae. The very fact that certain lakes in Jämtland that Naumann would undoubtedly have characterized as oligotrophic had a chironomid fauna, which according to the valid typology of the lakes based on the bottom faunistical conditions must be regarded as belonging to the mesotrophic type, was in itself an inducement enough for a closer study of chironomids and their dependence on environmental factors.

    Thus important problems were waiting for a solution. To contribute to this I started studies of the bottom fauna in 1942 with a particular regard to the chironomids in the Aneboda-Växjö district in the central part of the South-Swedish highland. These studies were concluded in the autumn of 1948.

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  • 2. Brundin, Lars
    Institute of Freshwater Research. Drottningholm: Report No 371956Report (Other academic)
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  • 3.
    Höglund, Lars B.
    Institute of Zoophysiology, University of Uppsala,.
    The Reactions of Fish in Concentration Gradients: A Comparative Study Based on Fluviarium Experiments With Special Reference to Oxygen, Acidity, Carbon Dioxide, and Sulphite Waste Liquor (Swl)1961Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of aquatic animals to discriminate between different qualities in the surrounding medium can be studied with the fluviarium technique (Höglund, 1953, 1960; Lindahl and Marcström, 1958). Using this technique the reactions of small specimens of fish (cf. Table 1, p. 12) to environmental differences in 02, pH, C02, and SWL (sulphite waste liquor) have been studied comparatively in chemically well-defined, stable, and reproducible concentration gradients of different types and angles (Fig. 1).

    The fish are allowed to swim freely about in a test yard which is a confined space (23.5X33 cm) of a streaming aquarium called a fluviarium. Perpendicularly to the direction of flow (1 cm/sec) ten uniformly wide (3.3 cm) concentration steps are established in different standard conditions.Gradients of various steepnesses all rising from nil at one side to a certain top concentration along the other are most frequently used. In the steepest gradients used in a series of experiments the test fish encountered concentrations well beyond the actual tolerable limits, at least in the most contaminated parts of the yard. Intact animals as well as fish with sense organs eliminated have been tested for at least 30 minutes in each standard gradient. The visits to each concentration were recorded at even intervals (usually every 30 seconds) with the aid of a film camera. The strength of preference reaction (avoidance or attraction) was measured as the lateral displacement (rv) from the median line of the test yard of the mean position value (mpv) of the distribution of records over the ten concentration steps, numbered 1 to 10. Rv and mpv are expressed in section number as unit (3.3 cm, i.e.one tenth of the width of the experimental trough; cf. above). The quantitative relationship between preference reaction and steepness of gradients is presented graphically i.a. in the form of 23 reaction curves. These were found to be characteristic of species and agents tested. They also indicate the actual preference threshold values.

    The essential features of the innate behaviour shown in nature are recognized in the fluviarium. The fish material used in the experiments represents different physiological, ecological, and ethological types. The courses of the reaction curves of different species must be estimated against the specific behaviour displayed in the test yard under control conditions (Fig. 24). That is, when pure water is poured through the apparatus, some 135 cyprinids as for example the roach (Leuciscus rutilus L.) continually swim about in a rather aimless way. They steer up against the current (Fig. 20) and avoid to come into bodily contacts with the walls and the bottom of the test yard. When exposed to gradients of an environmental factor which acts as a directive stimulus, the animals hesitate or change direction mainly when meeting rising concentrations. Parr stages of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), on the other hand, exhibit a typically stationary behaviour. When confronted with pH/Pco2 gradients a more or less erratic free-swimming (appetitive) behaviour is released. This is sooner or later followed by a consummatory action, that is, seemingly upon the lack of further stimulation the parr take new resting positions on the bottom of the pure side of the test yard. Possible physiological mechanisms underlying these reactions have been discussed (Fig. 38).

    The test agents were chosen as representatives of environmental factors which occur in all natural waters (02, pH, C02) and those which are newly introduced in the original habitats of fish (SWL). With respect to the division of abiotic, ecological factors into “natural” and “artificial” ones, the biological significance of response which makes it possible for free-moving aquatic animals to protect themselves against adverse influences from restricted parts of environmental gradients was finally considered.

    The main results and conclusions arrived at as regards particular factors can be summarized in the following way.

    (A) Oxygen

    (1) In oxygen gradients rising from less than 1 mg/1, roach, salmon parr, and crayfish prefer to stay in the higher concentrations.

    (2) The intensity of preference reaction is due to (or) the specific behaviour in the test yard and (b) the critical oxygen tension for particular species.

    (3) Oxygen is a non-directive stimulus to fish and crayfish.

    (4) Oxygen deficiency releases an emergency reaction which is characterized, inter alia by increased swimming activity. This may be regarded as an appetitive behaviour.

    (5) The positive reactions (cf. p. 49) obtained in pure oxygen gradients are due to ortho-kinesis.

    (B) Acidity and carbon dioxide

    The main conclusions arrived at in the section concerning the reactions studied in combined pH/Pco2 gradients can be summarized as stated below.

    (1) All species studied in the present experiments are able to avoid adverse conditions in pH and combined pH/PC02 gradients.

    (2) Fish are able to detect and avoid C02 separately from the accompanying pH.

    (3) Fish show marked avoidance to molecularly dissolved C02.136

    (4) Roaches show avoidance of lower pH than about 5.6 and Atlantic salmon parr to lower pH than about 5.3.

    (5) At the concentrations existing in the present experiments HC03~, Na+,and CH are non-directive factors in the reactions of the roach.

    (6) Hydrogen ions are non-directive upon the reactions of roach within the pH range of c. 5.6—10.5, and to the salmon parr from pH 5.3 to atleast 7.4.

    (7) Concerning pH, a certain correlation seems to exist between the tolerance limits and the directive influence upon fish.

    (8) Regarding various species, a certain connection is found between the avoidance reactions to C02 and the narcotic effects of C02. No corresponding connection is found as regards pH.

    (9) Compared with roach, salmon parr give sharper avoidance reactionsto C02, but less pronounced avoidance to pH.

    (10) The removal of olfactory tissues and the sectioning of the nervesinnervating the lateral organs do not essentially change the reactions ofroach, minnow, and salmon parr in pH/PCo2 gradients.

    (11) Acidity and carbon dioxide are either perceived by different receptorsystems or by the same receptors at essentially different thresholds.

    (12) The possibility is discussed that the avoidance reactions in C02gradients may be attributed to a special C02 sense connected with chemoreceptors in the gill region.

    (C) Sulphite waste liquor (.SWL)

    (1) Avoidance reactions in SWL gradients are to a great extent due to olfactory sensations. The removal of the olfactory tissues of minnows and roaches essentially extinguishes the avoidance shown by intact specimens especially in the lower concentration ranges of the reaction curves (Table 15,p. 114; Figs. 42, 43, and 45—46). A good correlation is found between the development of the sense of smell among various species and the preference thresh-old values obtained in SWL gradients (Table 17, p. 128).

    (2) The amount of avoidance due to odorous substances contained in the SWL diminishes in the steepest gradients. Thus no connection is obtained between the presumed incipient detrimental or lethal limits on one hand and the ability of avoiding contacts with noxious concentrations on the other. On the contrary, the sensibility 1 of the olfactory receptors or the responsiveness on the whole to sensory stimuli evidently is depressed in the steepest gradients of SWL.

    (3) On account of the free hydrogen ion content in SWL increasing avoidance due to free C02 which is liberated from the bicarbonate content is obtained in the steepest gradients established in hard, well-buffered waters (like Uppsala water) and to free hydrogen ions per se in steep SWL gradients 1 Cf. the foot-note on p. 106.137 in soft, poorly buffered waters (like Hölle water). The reactions to these additional factors presumably delay the descending slopes in the upper concentration ranges in the reaction curves of the minnow and the roach (Figs.39—44).

    (4) The discharge of SWL into the water basins may influence unfavourably upon fish life by at least two reasons, (a) In low, not toxic concentrations SWL may repel fish, especially those with well developed olfactorysenses, (b) At high, toxic concentrations the ability of fish to avoid contacts with SWL diminishes.

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  • 4. Svärdson, Gunnar
    Institute of Freshwater Research, Drottningholm. Report No 57: Spéciation of Scandinavian Coregonus1979Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    1. This paper is a revision, in the light of newevidence, of an earlier one (Svärdson 1957) on the same subject.

    2. The biological species concept is adopted. Lake Locknesjön, headwater of the Gimånriver, is inhabited by three indigenous species. The large sparsely-rakered whitefish has 19 gill rakers, the lesser sparsely-rakered whitefish 22 and the southern densely-rakered whitefish 42 rakers. Their ecology is different. Experiments show that the morphological as well as the ecological traits are mostly genetically based.

    3. The river whitefish with about 30 gillrakers is a fourth Scandinavian species. Normally it runs the lower parts of the rivers. It was introduced in Lake Lockne sjön in the 1940s and from Lake Vänern to upperlakes of the Indalsälven river system in 1870. If it lived allopatrically it was not changed, but if it lived sympatrically with native species introgression have occurred. In Lake Vänern it lives, spontaneously, sympatrically with both large and lesser sparsely rakered whitefish. The alleged evolution of a new species in postglacial times (Svärdson 1970) was based on introduced fish whose origin was mistaken.

    4. The northern densely-rakered whitefish is a fifth species. In Lake Storvindeln it has more than 60 gill rakers and is close to the “riverpeled” of north-western U.S.S.R. It grades by introgression to some 45 rakers in other lakes but proves its specific rank by living sympatrically with all the other forms.

    5. The blue whitefish, with 30—35 gill rakers, is the sixth and most competitive species. It has a tendency to oust the southern densely-rakered species as well as the lesser sparsely-rakered one. Its specific status is proved by sympatric coexistence with all the other forms in several lakes.

    6. There are five sympatric whitefish species in Lake Vänern as well as in the Arjeplog lakes of the Skellefte river. Two species live in the Baltic Sea.

    7. The order of postglacial arrival from the Ancylus Lake could be studied in lakes of the upper Ljusnan river and a complex introgression pattern in the Gimån river system is discussed.

    8. The spring-spawning cisco Coregonus trybomi, sp. nov., is described and its place of origin and postglacial dispersal across the Baltic Ice Lake in Younger Dryas is discussed.

    9. Isolating mechanisms in Coregonus are poor. Species groups behave towards one another (like ciscoes versus whitefish) as semispecies only, which could be interbred by man and produce viable, self-reproducing populations.

    10. The Siberian C. peled is thought to have split by multiple invasions into a western Soviet species (“river peled”), C. pallasi (northern densely-rakered whitefish), C. nilssoni (southern densely-rakered whitefish) and C. wartmanni (blue whitefish). The last mentioned species has a northern subspecies,C. w. megalops, in northern Fenno-Scandinaviaand along the Arctic coast area.

    11. The Siberian C. pidschian has in the same way produced three species, C. fera, C.acronius and C. lavaretus in western Europe. Each of them has a preglacial and a postglacial subspecies. Vernacular specific names are large sparsely-rakered, lesser sparsely rakered and river whitefish.

    12. The Siberian cisco, C. sardine lia, is split intomany species. A western Soviet Union speciesis C. kiletz, Scandinavian are C. albula and C. trybomi while the British and western European C. vandesius is found to be possibly a biological species of its own.

    13. The stability of Coregonus nasus and some other species (C. muksun, C. tugun andC. autumnalis) is found to correlate to riverine life, while the multiplying species (C. peled, C. pidschian and C. sardinella) more easily develop lake-spawning populations. They are consequently more widelyspread, from western Europe to the Atlantic drainage of North America.

    14. Geographical isolation is a paramount prerequisite for spéciation in Coregonus. Tolerance against genetic imbalance exists because of polyploid ancestry. Introgressionis thus an important spéciation factor.

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  • 5.
    Annual Report For The Year 1948: And Short Papers1949Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Institute of Fresh-Water Research, Drottningholm, (formerly: The Swedish State Institute of Fresh-Water Fishery Research) was founded in 1932. The Institute was directly under the Fishery Bureau of the Board of Agriculture with the chief of that Bureau as its director. On July 1st 1948, the Swedish Fishery Board was established, and the Institute’s formerdirector — fil. dr. Gunnar Alm — consequently appointed to the administration of freshwater fisheries within the Board. The Institute now represents fresh-water fishery research within the Board under the supervision of its own director. During the past years the results of the research have been published as reports appearing at various intervals. A list of all the reports published hitherto is found on the cover of this booklet. Considering the vast amount of research being carried on at present at similar institutes in other countries, it should, however, be of interest to publish an Annual Report, a survey of the year’s work at our Institute and short reports from the staff. More comprehensive work will, however, even in the future appear as separate papers. 

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  • 6.
    Annual Report For The Year 1949: And Short Papers1950Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Director's Report for the year 1948 a general survey was given of the work program of the Institute and during last year the research has continued on the whole along the same lines. This Report confines itself therefore to an account of the progress made during the year 1949 within the limits of the program set up. 

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  • 7.
    Annual Report For The Year 1950: And Short Papers1951Report (Other academic)
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  • 8.
    Annual Report For The Year 1951: And Short Papers1952Report (Other academic)
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  • 9.
    Annual Report For The Year 1952: And Short Papers1953Report (Other academic)
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  • 10.
    Annual Report for The Year 1953: And Short Papers1954Report (Other academic)
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  • 11.
    Annual Report for The Year 1954: And Short Papers1955Report (Other academic)
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  • 12.
    Institute of Freshwater Research. Drottningholm: Report No 381957Report (Other academic)
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  • 13.
    Institute Of Freshwater Research. Drottningholm: Report No 391958Report (Other academic)
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  • 14.
    Institute of Freshwater Research. Drottningholm: Report No 401959Report (Other academic)
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  • 15.
    Institute of Freshwater Research. Drottningholm: Report No 411960Report (Other academic)
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  • 16.
    Institute Of Freshwater Research. Drottningholm: Report No 421961Report (Other academic)
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  • 17.
    Institute of Freshwater Research. Drottningholm: Report No 441962Report (Other academic)
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  • 18.
    Institute Of Freshwater Research. Drottningholm: Report No 451964Report (Other academic)
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  • 19.
    Institute of Freshwater Research. Drottningholm: Report No 461965Report (Other academic)
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  • 20.
    Institute Of Freshwater Research. Drottningholm: Report No 471967Report (Other academic)
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  • 21.
    Institute of Freshwater Research. Drottningholm: Report No 481968Report (Other academic)
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  • 22.
    Institute Of Freshwater Research. Drottningholm: Report No 491969Report (Other academic)
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  • 23.
    Institute of Freshwater Research. Drottningholm: Report No 501970Report (Other academic)
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  • 24.
    Institute Of Freshwater Research. Drottningholm: Report No 511971Report (Other academic)
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  • 25.
    Institute of Freshwater Research. Drottningholm: Report No 521972Report (Other academic)
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  • 26.
    Institute of Freshwater Research. Drottningholm: Report No 531973Report (Other academic)
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  • 27.
    Institute of Freshwater Research. Drottningholm: Report No 541975Report (Other academic)
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  • 28.
    Institute of Freshwater Research. Drottningholm: Report No 551976Report (Other academic)
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  • 29.
    Institute of Freshwater Research. Drottningholm: Report No 561977Report (Other academic)
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  • 30.
    Institute of Freshwater Research. Drottningholm: Report No 581979Report (Other academic)
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  • 31.
    Institute of Freshwater Research. Drottningholm: Report No 591981Report (Other academic)
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  • 32.
    Institute of Freshwater Research. Drottningholm: Report No 601982Report (Other academic)
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  • 33.
    Nyman, Lennart (Editor)
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Government Agencies, Institute of Freshwater Research.
    Ericsson, Bibi (Editor)
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Government Agencies, Institute of Freshwater Research.
    Institute of Freshwater Research. Drottningholm: Report No 611984Report (Other academic)
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  • 34.
    Nyman, Lennart (Editor)
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Government Agencies, Institute of Freshwater Research.
    Ericsson, Bibi (Editor)
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Government Agencies, Institute of Freshwater Research.
    Institute of Freshwater Research. Drottningholm: Report No 621985Report (Other academic)
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  • 35.
    Nyman, Lennart (Editor)
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Government Agencies, Institute of Freshwater Research.
    Ericsson, Bibi (Editor)
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Government Agencies, Institute of Freshwater Research.
    Institute of Freshwater Research. Drottningholm: Report No 631986Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A Symposium on Aquaculture in Subarctic Areas was held at the University of Umeå, Sweden from June 4—7, 1985.

    The aim of the meeting was to unfold present knowledge regarding possibilities and problems related to the development of aquaculture activities at high northern latitudes.The meeting was financed by The Swedish Council for Forestry and Agricultural Research and The Nordic Council.

    At the meeting a wide range of topics was covered; general reviews of aquaculture in cold environments, potential species as candidates for subarctic aquaculture, thei nfluence of temperature and photoperiod on growth and developmental rates in aquaticorganisms, and aspects of extensive and intensive aquaculture techniques.

    A considerable potential for aquaculture in subarctic areas was recognized at the meeting. It was decided to recommend scientists to undertake increased research efforts along three principal lines in order to facilitate future development:

    (1) Research on the basic biology of potentially interesting species such as Arctic char and halibut, especially with regard to brood stock management, juvenile nutritional needs and environmental control of developmental rates.

    (2) Research on the basic properties of molecular genetics and physiological adaptations in fish, especially regarding seasonal adaptations and growth performance at low temperatures.

    (3) Research and development with regard to the combined use of high and low technology or extensive systems in areas with seasonally rich food supplies.

    The University of Tromso agreed to organize a second meeting on Aquaculture in subarctic areas along these lines in 1988.

    Although there were originally no plans for publication of the contributions to the meeting, the participants expressed a great interest in the matter.

    Because the topic of this Symposium falls within the scope of the Report of the Institute of Freshwater Research at Drottningholm, it was decided that this journal be used to print the Proceedings of the Symposium. This issue thus covers ten of the papers presented at the Symposium as well as the abstracts of all other papers and posters presented. We hope that these contributions will prove of value for the future of aquaculture in subarctic areas.

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