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  • 1.
    Ejhed, Heléne
    et al.
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Institutes, Swedish Environmental Research Institute, IVL.
    Widén-Nilsson,, Elin
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Universities, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU.
    Tengdelius Brunell, Johanna
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Government Agencies, SMHI.
    Hytteborn, Julia
    SCB.
    Näringsbelastningen på Östersjön och Västerhavet 2014: Sveriges underlag till Helcoms sjätte Pollution Load Compilation2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report represents the latest, most detailed and reliable assessment of nutrient loads from Swedish sources yet made. This report, together with its background reports, presents results, source data and calculations techniques with a level of detail intended to achieve full transparency and traceability as well as to permit further use of this work in Swedish water management. 

    The Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management gave SMED the task of evaluating sources of nitrogen- and phosphorus loads for the year 2014 and assessing the magnitude of those loads on lakes, water courses and the sea across Sweden. The aim was to produce the basis for Sweden’s national reporting to the Helcom ’Pollution Load Compilation 6 – PLC 6’ and to support water management work in Sweden. Similar calculations have been made previously but never with such high resolution in the input data. The work required processing and analysis of large amounts data to give complete information for the whole of Sweden, divided up into approximately 23 000 water bodies. 

    This increased resolution, together with the improved quality of input data and newly developed calculation routines provide more reliable estimates of total loads even at the local scale. The development work that has been completed will form the basis of the next load assessment report, PLC 7, the indepth evaluation of the national environmental target ’Zero eutrophication’ and future work within marine and water management. 

    The new calculations make use of new, high resolution land-use and soiltype maps, new data concerning purification in off-mains sewerage and storm water as well as a new height database (with 2 metres horizontal resolution). The height database has been used to calculate slope steepness, which is of great importance for estimates of phosphorus leakage. New observations in forest areas in southwestern Sweden have provided a better understanding of nutrient leakage in woodland areas and a new nutrient retention model has been developed as a result. These improved input data and high resolution calculation tools improve certainty in the results even at a local scale for individual water bodies. The results are made publically available through a new web tool, ’Technical Calculation System: Water’ (TBV, tbv.smhi.se).

    The results are presented in terms of gross- and net loads. Gross loads are the amount of nutrients released at source to a water body or lake from for example a sewage treatment works or an agricultural field. Net loads are the proportion of the gross loads that reach the sea. Additionally, results are presented as anthropogenic and total loads. Anthropogenic loads come from human activities, such as crop production in agriculture or emissions from industry. Total loads are the sum of the anthropogenic loads and background loads, which are the natural loads which would occur even if people were not present. The boundary between what is background and what are anthropogenic loads is based on the Helcom definition where all soil use contributes with both a natural load and possibly also an anthropogenic load. For example loads from landuse covered with forest are considered background, while loads from a clearcut or agriculture are considered the sum of both anthropogenic and background loads. In results where only anthropogenic loads are presented, the background loads have been taken away.

    Agricultural and forest land are the two largest sources of total loads to the sea for both nitrogen and phosphorus, with 34 100 and 34 900 tonnes of nitrogen and 1 100 and 850 tonnes of phosphorus, respectively during 2014. Together, these sources account for roughly 60% of the total load. For anthropogenic loads, agriculture is the largest source (23 300 tonnes nitrogen and 460 tonnes phosphorus), followed by emissions from sewage treatment works (14 000 tonnes of nitrogen and 240 tonnes of phosphorus). Loads from forest soils contribute only to the background loads while clear cuts, which a classed as an anthropogenic load contribute with only about 1500 tonnes of nitrogen and 20 tonnes of phosphorus. 

    The Bothnian Sea, Baltic Proper and Kattegat are those sea areas which receive the most nitrogen from Sweden’s total loads (29 500 tonnes, 29 400 tonnes and 28 700 tonnes respectively, or approximately 25% each). In the Bothnian Sea however, the greater part of this load is ’natural’ background loads. The Baltic Proper and Kattegat receive the most anthropogenic nitrogen, 33% and 31% respectively.  For phosphorus, most goes to the Bothnian Sea (990 tonnes or 30% of the total load). Just under a quarter reaches the Baltic Proper (780 tonnes) and about a fifth reaches the Kattegat and the Bothnian Sea (680 and 630 tonnes respectively). 

    The Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) provides emissions targets, with the aim of achieving good environmental status in the Baltic Sea (including the Kattegat). According to this analysis, the target for phosphorus is achieved in all basins except the Baltic Proper, where the target is extremely challenging and it will be difficult to reduce the phosphorus loads under the load ceiling (308 tonnes).This requires substantial measures on the anthropogenic load, but further challenging, is that the background loads are a significant proportion of the total load. Total net phosphorus load to the Baltic Proper is 780 tonnes per year according to these calculations, of which 370 tonnes are background loads. This requires therefore that measures must even reduce the background load, for example through creation of wetlands. For even the Baltic  Proper to achieve good environmental status with regard to eutrophication, measures will be required in all sub-basins of the Baltic Sea.  Because of the major changes in methods and input data, it is not possible to directly compare how loads have changed since PLC 5 (based on 2006 data) or the in-depth analysis of the national environmental target ’Zero eutrophication’ (based on 2011 data). For example, the total area of agricultural land has fallen by 1900 km2 since 2006, which leads to a reduction in the estimated nutrient losses. The magnitude of this reduction cannot presently be read from the calculations as they have been made with higher resolution in data compared with earlier years. At the same time, the new calculations show that the anthropogenic part is lower than earlier calculated. Recalculation of the older PLC data with the new methods is necessary to clarify how much of the observed changes result from measures within farming and how much is due to the improved input data and calculations. Nutrient loads from point sources are calculated in the same way as before and for these it is clear that discharges have reduced. In PLC 6 (2014) sewage treatment works were responsible for 240 tonnes of phosphorus and 14 000 tonnes of nitrogen, while in PLC 5 (2006) loads were 350 tonnes of phosphorus and 17 000 tonnes of nitrogen (net). Industry have also reduced their impact and are responsible for 250 tonnes of phosphorus and 3 800 tonnes of nitrogen, compared with 320 tonnes phosphorus and 4 800 tonnes nitrogen in 2006.

  • 2.
    Hennlock, Magnus
    et al.
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Institutes, Swedish Environmental Research Institute, IVL.
    Tekie, Haben
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Institutes, Swedish Environmental Research Institute, IVL.
    Ivarsson, Mats
    Enveco Miljöekonomi.
    Hasselström, Linus
    Enveco Miljöekonomi.
    Soutukorva, Åsa
    Enveco Miljöekonomi.
    Wallentin, Erik
    Enveco Miljöekonomi.
    Samhällsekonomiska konsekvensanalyser av att nå god havsmiljö: Kommersiellt fiske samt marin turism och rekreation2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project is to provide a basis for assessing socio-economic values of achieving good environmental status in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea according to the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. A further purpose is to assess socio-economic values from Swedish commercial fishing as well as marine tourism and recreation in this context. In order to describe the degree of influence of the activities and the loads on the ecosystem services, the analysis uses a system of matrices that describe the interaction between loads per activity, indicators of environmental status and ecosystem services in order to better assess the overall impacts on the ecosystem services. 

    An assessment of socio-economic values of commercial fishing is implemented for the scenario that good environmental status is reached in the Baltic Sea and the Skagerrak according the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. For good environmental status to be achieved in terms of cod stocks, catches should not exceed the fishing mortality consistent with achieving Maximum Sustainable Yield (FMSY) for those stocks in accordance with the ICES assessment. In order to estimate the value of achieving good environmental status we have used previous valuation studies conducted for cod in the North Sea as primaries in a benefit transfer. The annual increase in benefits with respect to cod stocks is assessed to lie within the range of 277 and 1.549 billion SEK per year. For the period 2016 - 2020, the overall increase in net present value lies within the range 1.4 - 8.9 billion SEK and for the period 2016-2050 within the range 3.5 - 19 billion SEK of achieving good environmental status. Under the new Common Fisheries Policy, we estimate that good environmental status with regard to Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) for the key species will be reached by 2050, and involves a continued reduction in the fishing fleet in Sweden. This will lead to a decrease in employment in the Swedish commercial fishing sector. On the other hand, the new common fisheries policy recommendations that small-scale fisheries receive larger shares of the quota will counteract a decrease in employment. Overall, we expect that the current employment in the fishing fleet in the beginning will decrease due to retirement over the next few years but that it eventually stabilizes and returns to current levels again. This is because the improved environmental status results in more even fishery efforts (fewer temporary closings) and an increased share of small-scale fisheries that are more labor intensive. 

    The initial assessment by the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management 2012 showed that the marine tourism accounts for a significant share of the Swedish maritime economy, approximately 17% of net sales. This includes cruise traffic, boating, holiday homes, commercial housing, other residents and day trips to the coast. An assessment of socio-economic values is implemented for the scenario that good environmental status is reached according to the Marine Strategy Framework Directive with respect to marine tourism and recreation. The analysis builds on the initial assessment 2012 concerning the link between tourism activities and its dependence and impact on marine ecosystems services. Assessments are also made for other marine and land-based activities affecting the marine ecosystem services. A businessas-usual scenario was developed for the period up to 2020 and then 2050, which was then compared to good environmental status.  The analysis shows that the socio-economic values that can be expected in the sector marine tourism and recreation, in terms of present values for reaching and maintaining good environmental status, amount to about 90-100 billion SEK. The value consists of the benefits that are expected to arise as a result of industry growth and increased recreational values. This assessment is uncertain.

  • 3.
    Söderqvist, Tore
    et al.
    Enveco Environmental Economics Consultancy.
    Hasselström, Linus
    Enveco Environmental Economics Consultancy.
    Soutukorva, Åsa
    Enveco Environmental Economics Consultancy.
    Cole, Scott
    EnviroEconomics Sweden .
    Malmaeus, Mikael
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Institutes, Swedish Environmental Research Institute, IVL.
    An ecosystem service approach for analyzing marine human activities in Sweden: A synthesis for the Economic and Social Analysis of the Initial Assessment of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The initial assessment (IA) of the implementation of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) includes an economic and social analysis (ESA). This analysis covers two components: (1) the use of marine waters and (2) the cost of degradation of the marine environment. The Swedish ESA work has entailed four different areas, reported in four separate reports:  A. The maritime sector (IVL and Enveco, 2012  "Report A") B. Marine tourism and recreation (Enveco, DHI and Resurs, 2012  "Report B") C. Oil spill (IVL, Enveco and EnviroEconomics Sweden, 2012  "Report C") D. Marine litter (Enveco and DHI, 2012  "Report D") The purpose of this analysis is to synthesize the results of the four reports.  The Swedish ESA is based on the ecosystem service approach and also on the DPSIR framework for sorting out relationships between Drivers, Pressures, State, Impact and Response. The point of departure in terms of marine ecosystem services is the classification in Table 0.1. We apply an ecosystem service analysis that in principle follows the procedure of a Corporate Ecosystem Services Review (ESR) (WRI, 2008) for evaluating a human activity’s dependence of – and impact on – eco system services. In the DPSIR context, the focus is on both how a driver influences the status of ecosystem services through its pressure and how the driver is affected by the status of ecosystem services. In short, this analysis applies the following four steps:  I. Identify the human activities, i.e. the drivers.   II. Identify associated pressure (for each driver) and determine (1) which ecosystem service(s) it is mainly dependent upon and (2) which ecosystem services it mainly affects. Based on this "filter", select the most relevant ecosystem services for further analysis.  III. Analyze the status and trends in the selected ecosystem services by associating them to Good Environmental Status (GES) descriptors and indicators.  IV. Analyze how a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario influences the trend in GES indicators and thus, the implied status of ecosystem services.

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