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  • 1.
    Bergström, Lena
    et al.
    Utförare miljöbevakning, Universitet, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU, Institutionen för akvatiska resurser, SLU Aqua.
    Lagenfelt, Ingvar
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    Sundqvist, Frida
    Utförare miljöbevakning, Universitet, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU, Institutionen för akvatiska resurser, SLU Aqua.
    Andersson, Ingemar
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    Andersson, Mathias H.
    Utförare miljöbevakning, Universitet, Stockholms universitet, SU, Zoologiska institutionen. Utförare miljöbevakning, Institut, Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Sigray, Peter
    Utförare miljöbevakning, Institut, Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Study of the Fish Communities at Lillgrund Wind Farm: Final Report from the Monitoring Programme for Fish and Fisheries 2002–20102013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2001, the Swedish Government authorised the construction of an offshore wind farm at Lillgrund in the Öresund Strait between Denmark and Sweden. In 2002, the Environmental Court defined the final terms and conditions for the wind farm development and the extent of the monitoring programme required.  Lillgrund wind farm came into full operation in 2008, and is currently the largest offshore wind farm in operation in Sweden.  The Swedish National Board of Fisheries conducted a monitoring programme, in the area, in the years before (2002–2005) and after (2008– 2010) the construction of the wind farm; a base line study and a study when the wind farm was operational, respectively. No investigation was conducted during the construction phase. The aim was to investigate the impact of the wind farm during the operational phase on the benthic and pelagic fish as well as on fish migration. These studies have partly been integrated into work conducted as a part of the Vindval Research Programme, funded by the Swedish Energy Agency.

    Acoustics (sound) 

    • The overall sound energy from the wind farm under water is mainly generated by vibration from the gearbox.

    • An analysis of the sound pressure level for the wind farm area, showed a correlation between noise level and the number of turbines in the wind farm (the so called park effect), where each individual turbine helps to increase the overall noise level in the area. 

    • Sound measurements from Lillgrund wind farm showed that noise levels within a distance of 100 metres from a turbine at high wind speeds are high enough to be a risk for some species of fish to be negatively affected, e.g. in the form of direct escape behaviour, or masking of vocal communication between individuals. 

    • Stress reactions can also occur at distances of more than 100 metres from a turbine. This is due to the fact that the noise from the turbines is continuous and louder than the ambient noise levels within some frequencies.   

    Measurements of the underwater noise levels were carried out at varying distances from individual turbines, from longer distances away from the entire wind farm as well as within a reference site (Sjollen) 10 km north of the wind farm. The results show that the wind farm produces a broadband noise below 1 kHz as well as one or two tones where the 127 Hz tone is the most powerful (vibrations from the first stage in the gear box). The majority of the overall underwater sound energy from the wind farm lies around the tone of 127 Hz.  The maximum noise levels, generated by the wind turbine, working at full production (12 m/s), at 1 m were 136 dB re 1µPa(RMS) for the dominant tone of the turbine which was 127 Hz (integrated across 123–132 Hz) and 138 dB re 1µPa(RMS) at the full spectrum (integrated across 52–343 Hz). At a distance of 100 m from the turbine, the noise levels are reduced to 104–106 dB re 1µPa(RMS) across the full spectrum, which is close to the locally measured ambient noise in the Öresund Strait, but the noise level was still around 23 dB above the background level for the 127 Hz tone.

    An analysis of the sound pressure level for the wind farm area showed a correlation between noise level and the number of turbines in the wind farm (called the park effect). Close to the wind farm (<80 m), the noise environment was dominated by the individual wind turbine with a calculated sound propagation loss of 17•log (distance). At greater distances (80 m to 7000 m) the sound propagation loss was non-linear and less than 17•log (distance). This is explained by the fact that the other turbines in the wind farm contributed to the total noise level. At even greater distances (>7 km) the entire wind farm functioned as a point source and the sound propagation loss was once again measured as 17•log (distance). The noise levels equivalent to those recorded and calculated from Lillgrund wind farm have not been shown to cause any physical injury to fish according to the current published scientific literature. It was only within some 100 metres from a turbine at high wind speeds that the noise levels were high enough to result in the risk of negative effects on some species of fish in the form of direct escape behaviour or possible masking of communication. The response depends upon the individual species’ sensitivity to sound. Fish have been shown to become stressed when they find themselves in a consistently noisy environment, which in turn can result in for example, lower growth rates or can have an impact on reproduction. Stress in general can also, in combination with other negative factors, make them more susceptible to disease etc., due to an impaired immune system. Animals can choose however, to remain in an area despite the disturbance, if the area is sufficiently important for their survival or reproduction.  Based on the calculated sound propagation around the wind farm, salmon and eel could theoretically detect the 127 Hz tone at 250 m and 1 km distances respectively at a productivity rate of 60 and 100 %, which is equivalent to a wind speed of approximately 6 and 12 m/s. The calculated distances would be limited by the hearing ability of both fish species and not the background noise levels in the Öresund Strait. For herring and cod, the theoretical detection distance was calculated to be between 13 and 16 km respectively for a production rate of 60 and 100 %. This distance should have been greater, but is limited for these species due to the ambient noise levels in the area. These calculations indicate that fish can potentially detect sound from the wind farm at relatively long distances. Local variations with regard to depth and physical barriers such as peninsulas, e.g. Falsterbonäset in the southern end of the Öresund Strait, can however, have a large impact on the actual sound propagation. 

    Benthic Fish

    • The temporal development of the fish community in Lillgrund was similar to that observed in the reference areas during the study period. For the wind farm as a whole, no effect was observed on species richness, species composition or on the abundance of fish. 

    • Several species of fish however, showed an increase in abundance close to the wind turbines compared with further away, especially eel (yellow eel) (Anguilla anguilla), cod (Gadus morhua), goldsinny wrasse (Ctenolabrus rupestris) and shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius). The results reflect a redistribution of fish within the wind farm, rather than a change in productivity or migration from surrounding areas. The increase in abundance is probably due to the wind turbine foundations providing an opportunity for protection and improved foraging. The distance within which an increased abundance could be observed was estimated, for different species, to be between 50– 160 metres from a wind turbine. 

    • Fish distribution may to some extent have been influenced by the local acoustic environment, as a lower degree of aggregation close to the wind turbines at higher noise levels. The effect was most obvious for eelpout and eel (yellow eel). No response was seen for cod in relation to sound levels.   

    Changes in the species composition of the fish communities over time were studied in comparison with two reference areas. Of these, the northerly reference area (Sjollen) had a larger marine component than the southern reference area (Bredgrund). The species composition at Lillgrund had similarities with both of the reference areas.  The results from fish sampling with fyke nets and gill net series indicate that there have been no significant changes in the number of species, the species composition or the fish abundance after the wind farm was built, looking at the wind farm as a whole. Some changes have however been noted in relation to individual species. An increased catch of shore crab and eel (yellow eel) was observed during the first two years of production, but not in the third year. The catch of eelpout increased in all areas during the period studied, but to a slightly lesser extent at Lillgrund when compared to the reference areas. For the other species, the changes observed at Lillgrund were similar to at least one of the reference areas. These results suggest that the fish communities within the wind farm were primarily affected by the same general environmental conditions as the fish communities within the reference areas, rather than by the effects of the wind farm.  An analysis of the distribution patterns of fish close to the turbines showed an increased abundance in the immediate vicinity of the wind turbines in four of the eight species of fish studied: specifically shorthorn sculpin, goldsinny wrasse, cod and eel (yellow eel). The effects were seen already after the first year and were similar over all three years studied. An effect was also identified for eelpout, but only in 2010. The aggregation effect was seen within a distance of 50–160 metres from the wind turbines, different for the different species.  A comparison of the relative effect of different factors, based on the data from an extended survey in 2010, showed that the observed distribution pattern could be explained to a larger extent by the presence of the turbines rather than the underwater topography of the area. The analysis also indicated weak effects of the local acoustic environment on fish distribution patterns, with a reduced presence of fish at higher noise levels. The response was strongest for eelpout and eel. No response in relation to noise level was seen for cod. For shorthorn scuplin and common shore crab a response was seen only 11 Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management Report 2013:19  during the autumn. The magnitude of the effect of noise was, however, lower than the aggregation effect. Hence, fish aggregated close to the wind turbines in all conditions, but the effect was weaker when the noise levels were higher. It is recommended that the the wind farm area is reinvestigated after a number of years to follow the long-term development of the fish populations, and to see if the aggregation effect observed continues and potentially also increases over time. A prerequisite for a long term positive development of fish abundance is that the removal of fish, such as from fishing or predation by marine mammals and fish-eating birds, does not increase in the area. 

    Pelagic Fish

    • There was a dramatic increase in commercial fishing for herring north of the Öresund Link (close to the north of the wind farm) in the first years of operation of the wind farm, in contrast to south of the bridge that forms a part of the Öresund Link, where it virtually completely stopped. This change may imply that the Rügen herring migration was affected by the Lillgrund Wind Farm. Due to the fact that there were other factors in addition to the wind farm contributing to the herring movements, it proved difficult to identify any correlation.   

    The evaluation was based on catch statistics from the commercial fisheries in the Öresund Strait (ICEs subdivision SD 23) and fisheries independent statistics from ICES for adult herring (Rügen herring) (ICES subdivision SD 21–23, western Baltic Sea and southern Kattegatt) and density of juvenile fish (ICES subdivision SD 24). There was a dramatic increase in commercial fishing for herring north of the Öresund Link in the first years of operation of the wind farm, in contrast to south of the bridge where it virtually completely stopped. The reason may be largely explained by the regulations banning drift-net fishing and a favourable market for herring, but potentially also because of the Öresund Link which was completed in 2000.The potential impacts of the wind farm are therefore difficult to distinguish from the impacts of these other factors because detailed resolution in the catch statistics are missing from the years before 1995 prior to the start of the building work on the Öresund Link. The statistics independent of commercial fishing from ICES showed no significant correlation between the density of herring juveniles in the western Baltic Sea and the number of adult herring (3 years old or more) in the following years in the Öresund Strait (ICES SD 21–24). There was however a weak tendency towards a negative development of the fish population over the period 1993 – 2010. The presence of Rügen herring and their migration through the Öresund Strait is likely strongly influenced by the fact that the population shows large fluctuations between the years. In addition, there is a possible overlapping effect on the soundscape from the wind farm and the Öresund Link, which has been in use since 2000.  Overall, the variety of factors together mean that it is difficult to identify any clear results with regard to if the migration of Rűgen herring is influenced by Lillgrund wind farm.

    Fish Migration 

    • According to the results from this work, the wind farm at Lillgrund is not a barrier for the migration of the eels that come into contact with it. An equally large proportion of the tagged and released silver eels (approximately one third) passed the transect line with receivers, at Lillgrund both before the wind farm was constructed (baseline study) and after it was in operation. 

    • There was no statistically significant difference indicating any alteration in the migration speed of eels, but there were occasional longer migration times when the wind farm was working at higher levels of production (>20 % of maximum) which may indicate that some eels are affected by the wind farm. The fact that the eels also showed a tendency towards being noted on fewer occasions than expected within the wind farm at low productivity (<20 %) and on slightly more occasions than expected at higher productivity (>20 %), could indicate that they have greater difficulty in navigating past the wind farm at higher levels of productivity than lower. 

    The impact of the wind farm on migration was studied via tagging of migrating silver eels. In total, 300 acoustically individually tagged eels were included in the study and of these, 100 contributed with useable information. The baseline study period started on a small scale in 2001 and ended in 2005. The majority of the eels were tagged and monitored during the production period (2008– 2010). All tagged silver eels were released south of the wind farm. 

    The results showed that an equally large proportion of the tagged and released silver eels; approximately one third, passed a transect with receivers at Lillgrund wind farm, both during the baseline period 2001–2005, and when it was in production 2008–2009. The greatest proportion of eels passed through the deeper part of the transect by the navigation channel Flintrännan close to the Danish border at Drogden during the production phase (31 %) and baseline period (43 %). A somewhat larger proportion of the eels were registered passing the most easterly part of the transect, close to Klagshamn, during the production phase (14 %) compared with the baseline period (5 %). A behaviour which occurred during the production phase, was that some individuals moved back to the release site, after being in the vicinity of wind farm. The most commonly observed behaviour during the study in 2010 was that an eel was registered moving south of the wind farm in a more or less northerly direction, but without being registered to the north of the wind farm.  The range in the time taken for the movement of the eels from the release site to the transect running through the wind farm was very great, from four to more than 1000 hours. There was no statistically significant difference in the time taken to travel, between periods with low production (<20 % of maximum) and periods with high production (>20 %) or for individuals which passed through or outside of the wind farm.  Even if the eels did not show any statistically significant behaviour, changes in movement patterns may occur for some individuals. The fact that there was a tendency towards longer periods of time taken for movement at higher production levels (not statistically significant) (>20 %) could indicate that some individual eels are influenced by the wind farm. The proportion of eels that took more than a week (168 hours) to make the journey was 48 % during the period with higher production (>20 %) compared with 28 % at lower production. No significant difference in the proportion of passes within or outside of the wind farm respectively could be shown. The eels showed however, – a tendency of being recorded on fewer occasions than expected inside the wind farm at low production levels (<20 %) and on more occasions than expected at higher production levels (>20 %). The irregularities in the proportions, compared with the expected result, could indicate that individual eels stayed longer in the wind farm when it was functioning at higher productivity. If the eels discover the wind turbine only when they are very close and do not change course, then other factors such as the speed of the current across the shallow marine areas become significant and can mean that the time spent in the area is shorter and records fewer. At high productivity, the eels may hesitate and/or divert their course and be recorded from close to or within the area, to then be recorded on the transect outside of the wind farm.  The mechanisms that lie behind the possible impact from the electromagnetic field or the noise pattern are difficult to distinguish, as both can have an impact on the same areas. Travelling speed showed no linear relationship with the level of production in the wind farm. 

    Conclusions

    The study at Lillgrund has resulted in an increase in the understanding of how offshore wind farms can affect fish, which is very valuable. Even within an international context, there are currently very few experience-based studies of offshore wind farms in operation.  The results from three years of monitoring during the operational phase show that the effects of the wind farm on fish populations and fishing were limited. One of the clearest results showed that some benthic fish species were attracted to the foundations of the wind turbines with their associated scour protection (reef effect). In addition, the effect on the local noise environment in the form of increased noise in the Öresund Strait was documented. The results of the eel tracking study may indicate that some eels are influenced by the wind farm on their migration. Some care should be taken however, when applying the results of these studies in other offshore environments and on a larger scale. The monitoring has only been carried out for three years and thus reflects only a short-term perspective. Lillgrund wind farm is also one of the first large-scale wind farms and is situated in an area with regular and noisy shipping traffic and both frequent and large variations in environmental factors such as salinity and currents.  A key knowledge gap that remains after the completion of this work is the lack of studies over a longer period of time, to help identify the long term ecological effects of, for example, the reef effect. Ideally, the wind farm should be re-visited after a number of years to see how the fish populations have developed over the longer term, and see if the observed aggregation of certain fish species close to the wind turbines continues, and to possibly see if any quantitative effects have taken place. Studies are also required in relation to how stress may affect fish species/individuals which choose the reef-like foundations and their noisier environment. Additional studies, primarily for the Baltic Sea, are also required to establish if there are any cumulative effects on migratory fish such as silver eels.

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  • 2. Graham, Dr Mark
    et al.
    Lewis, Mrs. Fonda
    Mander, Mr. Myles
    de Winnaar, Mr. Gary
    Whyte, Mr. Chris
    Pano, Mrs. Nathalie
    Socio-Economic Analysis of the Costs of inaction of plastic debris leakage into the uMngeni River catchment in KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa: Final report2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The KZN (KwaZulu Natal) floods of April 2022 highlighted many of the fault lines and fractures over the institutional and physical landscape and which constitutes much of the crisis noted with respect to regional plastic pollution in this environment. There were numerous reports and photographs of tonnes of plastic litter which arrived on the city’s beaches as an aftermath of the floods, and this for all the world to see! (BBC, 2022)

    Over 440 people are reported to have died, with nearly 4,000 homes destroyed and more than 8,000 damaged, mostly in Durban and its surrounding areas. Water and electricity supplies were severely disrupted, along with other municipal infrastructure (roads, bridges, communications etc.).

    The Premier of the province (Sihle Zikalala) is quoted as saying that the magnitude of the damage, will run into billions of rand (Pijoos, 2022), with the eThekwini municipality quoting at least R757million worth of damage (Pijoos, Devastating KwaZulu-Natal floods may have cost eThekwini R757 million, 14). 

    How do these institutional and physical fractures manifest in terms of the plastics issue, and how were they laid bare in this flooding?

    For one, many years of dysfunctionality and poor service delivery within the Durban solid waste environment (and the mismanagement of plastics particularly) allowed much of the plastic waste found in the river and on the beaches to manifest. The various solid waste corruption charges currently under criminal investigation also allude the mismanagement of the solid waste issue at an institutional level and particularly in some of the more rural and township areas that have been most hard hit by the flooding.

    As indicated in this report there is a strong link between poor plastic management at source (within the catchment, on the streets and within urban and semi urban areas) and which then finds its way into the rivers. Often on the way to the lowest point in the catchment, many of the poorly serviced stormwater drains are blocked (often with excessive plastic and other litter) and surcharge. This negates the efficacy of the stormwater infrastructure which then has a more significant storm damage effect in lower reaches of the catchment, and which was patently evident in the latest floods. 

    Additionally, once in the river and now travelling down flooded river systems, this plastic is caught up in other debris blocks and often particularly around culverts, smaller bridges and road causeways. The aperture on these causeways, culverts and bridges are often blocked with this debris, much of it from plastic and other litter and this material causes these bridges to become flooded and the associated infrastructure to fail. This has massive infrastructural repair cost implications. 

    Similarly, failing and surcharging stormwater systems puts pressure on sewerage infrastructure which is often in the same low-lying areas of catchments, and which is then inundated by stormwater. This cascading effect and linkage in turn causes the sewer lines and manholes to surcharge raw sewerage into rivers, estuaries and into the ocean. This has a massive impact on perceptions on water quality and suitability of the beaches for recreation and hence tourism perspectives. As this report highlights, this is one of the major findings, the monetary cost linkages between the value of tourism at the municipal scale (approximately R20billion) and the potential decline in this tourism revenue, stemming principally from a decrease in tourism appeal due to plastic diminishing aesthetics of tourist locations. These other, less obvious linkages between the effects of plastic pollution and other aspects around things like water quality, are not often evident, until this sort of linkages and landscape analysis are made.

    The uMngeni River Catchment is the largest catchment within the eThekwini Municipality and has a significant influence on other systems within the catchment. However, as of 2017, several of the uMngeni River tributaries were in poor/very poor condition, while the mainstem was reportedly in moderate ecological condition. The poor condition of this part of the catchment is partially attributable to the abundance of solid waste entering the river - primarily plastics. Evidence suggests that plastic accumulation in rivers is not only aesthetic in nature, but results in contamination, altering the Physico-chemical properties of the river, causing blockages and stagnating water. Furthermore, plastic blockages in sewer systems can result in overflow and exacerbate faecal pollution in river systems.

    The decline in the health of the uMngeni catchment has dire consequences for ecosystem wellbeing, and the ability for rivers and beaches to provide goods and services. Furthermore, South Africa has committed to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) set out by the United Nations (UN). The resolution of plastic pollution must become a national priority – to safeguard the wellbeing of humans and the environment (the primary engine for the delivery of environmental goods and services) and to uphold the commitment made to the UN and its SDGs.

    The 2019 Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management (SwAM) Source-to-Sea study provided information on the last known state of the study area. The study reviewed aspects relevant to good water management in the KZN province, such as key flows, stakeholders, and governance, along with information on the sources, pathways, and impacts of plastics and possible solutions in the catchment. These key aspects were incorporated into this current study (2022).

    The primary objective of the 2022 SwAM study was to investigate the social and economic impacts associated with plastic waste accumulating in the uMngeni River Catchment and the catchment-derived ecosystems therein (downstream of the Inanda Dam).

    “Social impacts” encapsulates how plastic affects the following:

    • Human health (psychological and physical wellbeing),
    • Recreation,
    • Spiritual values.

    “Economic impacts” focuses on how plastic affects the following:

    • Businesses/ industries revenue generation,
    • Costs associated with clean-up activities in the study area ecosystems.

    Finally, this study considers a range of scenarios and predicts several future outcomes related to the plastic-waste problem, based on the level of response to this issue. Innovative solutions are proposed to tackle the main issues.

    The methodology has at its core:

    • Stakeholder interviews and an analysis of perceptions around plastics in the study area,
    • Modelling of the flow of ecosystems goods and services within the system, and those influenced by plastics, and then
    • Running of a suite of likely scenarios around the plastics issue.

    Online interviews were conducted with key stakeholders previously identified in the 2019 SwAM study. All stakeholders had, importantly, interacted with the affected river/marine system at some level. A Background Information Document (BID), provided prior to the interview, allowed stakeholders to participate in the interviews from an informed perspective.

    The interviews were aimed at developing an understanding of the socio-economic issues associated with plastic pollution. Stakeholders were presented with open-ended question about their perceptions regarding two key issues - the social and economic costs associated with plastic waste, respectively.

    Stakeholders primarily felt that plastic negatively influenced the:

    • cultural (aesthetics of the environment, happiness of the community, tourist appeal, and spiritual practises),
    • provisioning (ability for stakeholders to interact with the aquatic environment in a way that provides, such as fishing and agricultural activities) and
    • supporting (municipal infrastructure negatively impacted by flooding and its attenuation) ecosystem services.

    The stakeholder engagement process highlighted that plastic pollution is part of a larger set of issues associated with the waste management system. Stakeholder perceptions strongly indicated that clearing plastic waste would lead to an improvement in quality of life for stakeholders in the affected area.

    The plastic supply chain, costs of plastic and impacts of plastic on ecosystem services was summarised from literature and unpublished data from the stakeholder engagement. This was aimed at identifying the routes that plastic products followed before ending up in the environment as waste – such as (but not limited to) routes in residential areas, industrial areas, recreational sites, and roads.

    The primary monetary costs associated with plastic pollution were:

    • the clean-up costs of plastic in environment (primarily for beaches and rivers),
    • damage to municipal infrastructure,
    • decline in tourism revenue (which stemmed from a decrease in tourism appeal due to plastic diminishing aesthetics of tourist locations),
    • health and psychological costs,
    • recreation value loss and
    • decline of property value.

    There are numerous, often not obvious, but perverse negative impacts from plastic waste which compound in the environment and affect other aspects of the system. These may be summarized in this context as:

    • Aggravating flooding and water quality problems – plastic becomes entangled with plant material/debris, restricting the apertures on culverts/bridge infrastructure and reducing their flood design capacity, leading to back-flooding, higher flood levels and consequently damage to surrounding infrastructure.
    • Plastic waste ingress into stormwater and sewer systems cause blockages and failures to water and sanitation infrastructure exacerbating the impacts from flooding as well as causing untreated sewage to surcharge and contaminate aquatic ecosystems (rivers, estuaries, and the near shore marine environment).
    • Plastic waste and pathogens – plastic waste may be a carrier for bacteria and shield waterborne pathogens from the natural sterilising effects of the sun’s ultraviolet light and further exacerbate faecal pollution.

    The supply and demand of ecosystem services were simulated for a period of 10 years using the ECOFUTURES modelling system. Geographical and socio-ecological data of the study area was gathered and compiled in Microsoft Excel. This data was also used to determine the relative magnitudes of service levels, land cover supplying the most services, and the greatest levels of services per hectare.

    Several simulation scenarios were prepared and shared with stakeholders and local experts during a workshop held on the 10th of March 2022. Based on insights gained from the workshop, the model was refined into three plausible future scenarios – namely:

    • Maximum (upper boundary of improved benefits, up to 60% increase in service levels),
    • High Road (best plausible solution, between 0-30% increase in service levels) and
    • Low Road scenarios (no changes/improvements are made, 20-80% decline to current service levels).

    The demand for services was determined based on the Human Benefit Index (HBI), a parameter which ranked ecosystem services according to the level of benefit these services generated for people. Results showed a high level of demand and dependency on services that related to Durban’s tourism industry – such as marketing icon, beach recreation and visual amenity. Consequently, due to the large demand and limited supply, these are also the services that are most at risk to negative impacts posing a serious risk to the wellbeing of its users.

    Plastic waste has infiltrated and disrupted key ecological and urban systems, reducing their ability to provide goods and services, and consequently threatening the wellbeing of stakeholders in the study area. However, traditional solutions, such as landfill sites and incinerators, have finite space or tend to generate waste - therefore offering temporary solutions to an inevitable problem, and misaligning with the SDGs.

    As such, innovative solutions are required, and the High Road scenario is proposed for Durban. This scenario proposes several cost-effective, sustainable solutions. The Transformative Riverine Management Programme (TRMP) aims to clear solid waste and alien vegetation from the study area, with an added benefit of promoting community involvement. Passive solid waste traps are also recommended as a simplistic means to capture and remove plastic from the supply chain.

    Various social and institutional interventions, such as EnviroChamps training, school environmental programmes, and river awareness and training, were also recommended. These interventions target the lack of public awareness, with the aim to shift public behaviour to more sustainable, plastic-conscious practises. Finally, solutions such as pyrolysis and gasification units aim to create a plastic value chain. These solutions generate revenue by consuming plastic to produce useful products, such as fuel or gas (which can be used for energy generation) – effectively creating a return on investment that can fund other interventions.

    Resolving the plastic waste issue will require efforts to implement new, sustainable solutions. The current status-quo has been ineffective against the continued accumulation of plastics in the urban and ecological environments and will eventually become completely overwhelmed. This will inevitably lead to urban and ecological services failing, negatively affecting the health of humans and the environment.

    Unavoidable financial costs to businesses and industries relying on these services can be expected, with the most detrimental costs resulting from the degradation of South Africa’s tourism industry - which contributed R125 billion to the South African economy in 2016. However, resolving the plastic waste issue also presents new opportunities for job creation, skills development, and implementation of long-term, sustainable solutions that generate revenue.

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  • 3.
    Göthberg, Maria
    et al.
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    Carneiro, Gonçalo
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    Hammar, Linus
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    Gårdmark, Wilhelm
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    Isaksson, Ingela
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    9 facteurs permettant la croissance bleue locale dans les pays en développement: Document d’orientation basé sur quatre études de référence2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [fr]

    Le présent document d’orientation résume les résultats de quatre études de référence explorant les conditions permettant de sortir les communautés côtières de la pauvreté

    Le document énumère neuf facteurs institutionnels et infra-structurels clés qui favorisent la croissance bleue locale à partir de l’utilisation des ressources marines dans les pays en développement.

    Le présent document d’orientation est le résultat de SwAM Ocean, le programme de coopération au développement international géré par l’Office suédois de gestion des ressources marines et aquatiques.

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  • 4.
    Göthberg, Maria
    et al.
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    Carneiro, Gonçalo
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    Hammar, Linus
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    Gårdmark, Wilhelm
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    Isaksson, Ingela
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    9 factores posibilitando el crecimiento azul a nivel local en los países en desarrollo: Informe de orientación política basado en cuatro estudios2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This policy brief presents nine key institutional and infrastructure factors that promotelocal blue growth from the use of marine resources in developing countries.

    The policy brief is provided by the Swedish Agency of Marine and Water Management,and is based on four background studies, all addressing the same question:

    What is needed for marine resources to actually generate local blue growth.

    Here, local blue growth refers to economic revenue and wellbeing in the local community from the sustainable use of ocean resources, such as fisheries, aquaculture, or tourism.

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  • 5.
    Göthberg, Maria
    et al.
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    Carneiro, Gonçalo
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    Hammar, Linus
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    Gårdmark, Wilhelm
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    Isaksson, Ingela
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    9 Factors enabling local blue growth in developing countries: Policy brief based on four background studies2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This policy brief presents nine key institutional and infrastructure factors that promotelocal blue growth from the use of marine resources in developing countries.

    The policy brief is provided by the Swedish Agency of Marine and Water Management,and is based on four background studies, all addressing the same question:

    What is needed for marine resources to actually generate local blue growth.

    Here, local blue growth refers to economic revenue and wellbeing in the local community from the sustainable use of ocean resources, such as fisheries, aquaculture, or tourism.

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  • 6.
    Göthberg, Maria
    et al.
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    Carneiro, Gonçalo
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    Hammar, Linus
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    Gårdmark, Wilhelm
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    Isaksson, Ingela
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    9 fatores que permitem o crescimento azul local em países em desenvolvimento: Resumo de políticas baseado em quatro estudos de base2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [pt]

    Este resumo de políticas agrega resultados de quatro estudos de base explorando as condições para tirar comunidades costeiras da pobreza.

    Este resumo alista nove principais fatores institucionais e de infraestrutura que promovem o crescimento azul local a partir do uso de recursos marinhos em países em desenvolvimento.

    Este resumo de políticas é resultado do SwAM Ocean, o programa internacional de cooperação para desenvolvimento operado pela Agência Sueca para o Gestão Marinha e da Águas

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  • 7.
    Göthberg, Maria
    et al.
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    Carneiro, Gonçalo
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    Hammar, Linus
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    Gårdmark, Wilhelm
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    Isaksson, Ingela
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    Mambo 9 yanayowezesha ukuaji wa bluu kwa wenyeji katika nchi zinazoendelea: Muhtasari wa sera kutokana na tafiti nne za usuli2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sw]

    Muhtasari huu wa sera unawasilisha mambo tisa muhimu ya kitaasisi na miundombinu yanayochangia ukuaji wa bluu kwa wenyeji kutokana na matumizi ya rasilimali za baharini katika nchi zinazoendelea.

    Muhtasari wa sera umetolewa na Wakala wa Uswidi wa Usimamizi wa Bahari na Maji, na unategemea tafiti nne za usuli, zote zikishughulikia swali moja: ni nini kinachohitajika ili rasilimali za baharini zizalishe ukuaji wa bluu kwa wenyeji.

    Hapa, ukuaji wa bluu kwa wenyeji unarejelea mapato ya kiuchumi na ustawi katika jamii ya wenyeji kutokana na matumizi endelevu ya rasilimali za bahari, kama vile uvuvi, ufugaji wa samaki, au utalii.

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  • 8.
    Hogdin, Susanna
    et al.
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    Dahlberg, Ann
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    Jansson, Emil
    Utförare miljöbevakning, Myndigheter, Naturvårdsverket.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Utförare miljöbevakning, Myndigheter, Naturvårdsverket.
    Thews, Björn
    Utförare miljöbevakning, Myndigheter, Naturvårdsverket.
    Tillstånd till användning av bekämpningsmedel inom vattenskyddsområden: Vägledning för prövningen2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten och Naturvårdsverket har ett gemensamt vägledningsansvar för tillståndsprövning för växtskyddsmedelsanvändning inom vattenskyddsområden. Myndigheterna tog därför fram en gemensam vägledning som publicerades under 2016: Tillstånd till användning av bekämpningsmedel inom vattenskyddsområden (Havs- och vattenmyndighetens rapport 2016:7). Denna vägledning har nu uppdaterats och ersatts av Havs- och vattenmyndighetens publikation Tillstånd till användning av växtskyddsmedel inom vattenskyddsområde, rapport 2022:22.

    Den här vägledningen kan användas av såväl tillsynsmyndigheter som verksamhetsutövare när det gäller ansökan om användning av bekämpningsmedel inom vattenskyddsområden. Vägledningen behandlar såväl tillståndsprövning enligt vattenskyddsföreskrifter som fastställts med stöd av 7 kap. 22 § miljöbalken som enligt 6 kap. Naturvårdsverkets föreskrifter (NFS 2015:2) om spridning och viss övrig hantering av växtskyddsmedel. 

    Vägledningen har avgränsats till att gälla tillståndsprövning av kemiska växtskyddsmedel med tyngdpunkt på sådana frågeställningar som uppkommer i lantbrukets hantering av växtskyddsmedel. Även användning av kemiska växtskyddsmedel inom annan verksamhet hanteras emellertid i viss utsträckning i vägledningen.  Det övergripande syftet med denna vägledning är att bibehålla en god råvattenkvalitet fritt från bekämpningsmedelsrester i våra vattentäkter. Vägledningen syftar dessutom också till att skapa förutsättningar för en enklare och mer enhetlig hantering av tillståndsansökningar för användning av bekämpningsmedel i vattenskyddsområden. 

    Inledningsvis i vägledningen ges en allmän orientering av regelverken beträffande vattenskyddsområden samt regler för användning av bekämpningsmedel. Därefter lämnas vägledning om handläggningen av tillståndsärenden från det att en ansökan inkommer till det att beslut fattas. Viktiga delar i handläggningen av tillståndsärenden som belyses i denna vägledning är vilka uppgifter en ansökan om tillstånd bör innehålla, riskbedömningen som ska göras av myndigheten, samt vad beslut i ett tillståndsärende bör innehålla och hur det bör utformas.

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  • 9.
    Tengberg, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI), International Centre for Water Cooperation - UNESCO.
    Wikman, Anna
    Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI), International Centre for Water Cooperation - UNESCO.
    Yusuf Ali, Hussein
    Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI).
    Anwar Seid, Hanan
    Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI), International Centre for Water Cooperation - UNESCO.
    Could Flood Risk Management Measures contribute to a Sustainable Blue Economy in Somalia?: Literature Review and Case Study from the Juba and Shabelle Basin2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Somalia experiences cyclic droughts every two to three years accompanied by devastating floods, particularly in the Southwestern regions. The floods occur when the Juba and Shabelle rivers burst their banks, affecting the livelihoods of about 1.8 million people. Flood control measures are therefore urgently needed, but their impacts on downstream communities and ecosystems have not been analyzed.

    This study therefore aims to investigate how floods and different control measures in the Juba and Shabelle river basins, including mitigation and prevention measures affect the coastal environment and the development of a sustainable blue economy in Somalia.

    A mixed-methods approach was used combining reviews of academic as well as grey literature on flood risk management and the Blue Economy of relevance to Somalia, with a questionnaire survey and interviews with local stakeholders in the central Juba-Shabelle River basin as well as key informants from international development partners. However, the literature and data from Somalia covering the targeted watersheds and rivers are limited, which has impacted the results and what is feasible to recommend.

    Key Blue Economy sectors considered important include fisheries, livestock and agriculture, ports and shipping as well as energy and tourism. All sectors have been affected by floods and associated pollution, but especially small-scale fisheries.

    This study has identified the following recommendations on actions to address challenges related to flood risk management and development of the Blue Economy in Somalia:

    The enabling environment needs to be strengthened to allow for multi-level policy implementation that links state-level and federal institutions and involve local communities and civil society.The destruction and decay of water infrastructure needs to be addressed as well as the very serious pollution related to solid waste, untreated sewage and chemicals from hospitals and farms from upstream sources of the Juba-Shabelle Rivers that also affects coastal areas and threatens small-scale fisheries.To strengthen the conditions for the Blue Economy, there are opportunities to implement more nature-based solutions and work with landscape features, such as forests, dunes and reefs.Planning and preparedness also need to be improved and a flood risk management strategy developed.Information, data sharing and monitoring should be strengthened and transboundary cooperation with Ethiopia pursued through for example transboundary water diplomacy and other security and reconciliation mechanisms.To save artisanal fisheries, the Juba and Shabelle Rivers need to be cleaned, and laws need to be enacted to reduce waste and pollution from upstream sources.The coastal area needs to be cleaned up and stabilized through use of landscape features and nature-based solutions, such as dune stabilization, planting of trees, mangroves and sea grass, and protection of natural habitats, such as wetlands, mangroves and coral reefs, building on analysis conducted by UNEP.Governance approaches that link upstream floods with downstream impacts are required, where multi-level and multi-scale governance arrangements can account for links across sectors and scales.Environmental flows should also be considered to ensure conservation of natural habitats important for regulation of water flows downstream and for conservation of biodiversity and provision of fish spawning grounds and nurseries, such as mangroves, coral reefs and sea grass beds.Trade-offs need to be considered between socio-economic benefits from development of the Blue Economy downstream with upstream flood risk management priorities and measures. Consideration must also be given to the effects of climate change and the ongoing drought.

    In general, Somalia is at the early stages of readiness and awareness raising on source-to-sea linkages and the need for a holistic approach to development challenges.

    However, as some progress has been made with coordination between sectors and development of a shared vision for FRM through the Hiiraan/Beledweyne Flood Committee and the federal Flood Risk Management Committee, the source-to-sea approach could be piloted in the Juba-Shabelle basin for priority flows of pollutants and waste that are threatening the development of the Blue Economy through capacity building of key stakeholders, action planning and development of monitoring and accountability mechanisms, building on ongoing support from UNDP, FAO and the World Bank.

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  • 10.
    Turpie, Jane
    et al.
    Environmental Policy Research Unit (EPRU), School of Economics, University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Mulwa, Richard
    2 CASELAP and School of Economics, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Leiman, Tony
    Environmental Policy Research Unit (EPRU), School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    Brühl, Johanna
    Environmental Policy Research Unit (EPRU), School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    Köhlin, Gunnar
    Environment for Development, University of Gothenburg, and School of Economics, University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Poverty and gender considerations in marine spatial planning: Conceptual and analytical framework2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The report provides a framework for ensuring that marine spatial planning (MSP) does not worsen poverty and gender inequality in developing countries, and that potentially marginalised groups are appropriately considered and engaged in the MSP process.

    This report provides guidelines for the steps of a more inclusive MSP process.

    The findings indicate that a scorecard can be used to guide the social sustainability of the MSP process. The criteria in the scorecard include:

    • power and voice
    • resources
    • opportunity and choice
    • security – community security and domestic harmony

    These criteria are based on the multi-dimensional poverty assessment framework by Sida, the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency.

    Useful to planners and decisions-makers

    This report can be useful to MSP planners and decision-makers at both local and national levels for to design an inclusive MSP process.

    Metrics tested in field case studies

    Moderately comprehensive social surveys were undertaken in three countries to test the metrics for incorporating gender and poverty dimensions into MSP. A total of 1506 households were interviewed.

    Why consider poverty and gender in your marine spatial planning

    Long-term success of MSP hinges on the three pillars of sustainability – environmental, economic and social sustainability.

    MSP is most often a national and centrally driven process that distributes power and influence among societal actors. Because of that, MSP may entrench existing power dynamics and marginalisation of groups, such as poorer households or women.

    By considering poverty and gender in your MSP you may increase the long-term success of you MSP.

    This report forms part of the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management’s efforts to support MSP implementation in the Western Indian Ocean.

    Financed by Sida, the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency.

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  • 11.
    Coexistence of offshore wind power with commercial fishing, aquaculture and nature conservation: A synthesis of knowledge about preconditions and measures2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In February 2022, the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management (hereinafter SwAM) and the Swedish Energy Agency (hereinafter Energy Agency) were tasked by the Government of Sweden with compiling a knowledge synthesis of the possibilities and preconditions for coexistence of offshore wind power with commercial fishing, aquaculture and nature conservation. The agencies have interpreted the assignment as referring to coexistence in the same location, highlighting in particular the importance of and prerequisites for adapting the different activities. This final report is based on a review of literature and projects, an analysis of navigational safety conditions, exchanges of experiences with other countries and dialogue with Swedish authorities and stakeholders.

    Offshore wind power

    The increasing demand for electricity is increasing interest in developing new offshore wind power. As a result, wind power’s claims on marine space have also increased, which could lead to conflicts with existing uses. The impacts of offshore wind power and the conditions for coexistence differ between the construction, operation and decommissioning phases, and are dependent on factors such as the choice of technology and type of installation. The rapid technological development that characterises offshore wind power creates both opportunities and challenges for coexistence, and there are currently several uncertainties that remain to be resolved. 

    The regulatory framework applicable to the establishment of offshore wind power is extensive and complex, particularly in terms of regulating its environmental impacts. At the same time, there are no regulations explicitly aimed at coexistence with other activities. Both in Sweden and other countries, there is limited experience in testing co-location of activities in offshore wind farms.

    For offshore wind power, the lack of predictability in the permitting process is an important challenge both for the state and the developer in terms of enabling coexistence while promoting new electricity generation. The planning and establishment system for offshore wind power that is currently in place in Sweden is limited in its ability to steer the expansion of offshore wind power in terms of the cumulative effects on the environment and other activities. More broadly, the system is ill-suited to promote coexistence at a more strategic level. This report presents arguments for a revised establishment system with stronger state steering and control of where offshore wind power may be located. The arguments highlight factors such as the potential for improved steering based on benefits for the electricity system, for better coexistence with other uses and assessment of cumulative effects, as well as for greater control over the pace of establishment and knowledge gathering.

    Coexistence between offshore wind power and commercial fishing

    The potential for coexistence between offshore wind power and commercial fishing differs depending on the fishing method, the type of wind park and the environmental conditions in the area. Coexistence with fishing with active gear is largely untested and is considered difficult or very difficult, mainly due to the associated safety risks. The current knowledge of opportunities and obstacles is largely based on experiences from older installations. The conditions for coexistence in future wind farms are judged to be better, although opinions vary. To date, the vast majority of countries have not planned for offshore wind in the most valuable fishing areas. This may be about to change in some countries, as governments are beginning to realise that conflict-free areas are not sufficient to meet offshore electricity generation targets. In Sweden, where there are wind power projects in some of the country's most valuable fishing grounds, two recent draft permits have proposed measures requiring the development of coexistence solutions. Coexistence is one of the fundamental objectives of Swedish marine spatial planning, and it is primarily within the framework of marine spatial planning that trade-offs between competing activities should be made.

    Where the coexistence of wind power and fishing is deemed possible, guidance on conditions may be relevant in terms of both the design of the wind park and the fishing activities. The focus should be on the safety and efficiency of both activities. The guidance may be of a general nature in marine spatial planning, and more detailed for the permit granting process. In the latter case, such guidance should contribute to uniform permit granting processes for future wind power projects. In the future, it may be necessary for the state to impose specific requirements regarding coexistence in certain areas. There is a need to investigate what opportunities the Swedish state has to impose such requirements within the existing wind power establishment system.

    This report also highlights the need for a robust, quantitative analysis of navigational risks related to fishing within wind parks in Swedish waters. Opportunities and obstacles to insurance of fishing activities in wind parks also need further analysis, taking fishermen, fishing boats and wind park developers into account. Cooperation between the sectors is crucial for the development of mutually beneficial coexistence solutions, which is why continued support for dialogue between fisheries and wind power is important.

    Coexistence between offshore wind power and aquaculture

    Offshore aquaculture is a new and growing activity. Although the industry is still in its infancy, there is a growing awareness of its commercial potential. Coexistence with offshore wind power can provide an opportunity for aquaculture to establish itself offshore and could lead to more efficient utilisation of wind power areas. At present, there is a very small number of combined aquaculture and wind power installations, all of which are at a research stage. There are currently no active facilities or license requests for offshore aquaculture in Swedish waters. Coexistence is currently hampered by a number of challenges relating primarily to the technology, operation and safety of combined installations, as well as to regulations, finances and insurance.

    The coexistence of aquaculture and offshore wind power can benefit from explicitly identifying sites for multi-use during the planning process, as recently introduced by the Netherlands. This may be the case in Sweden in the future, based on the ambition in the 2021 Aquaculture Action Plan to identify suitable areas for offshore aquaculture. Future marine spatial plans could provide guidance on coexistence in such sites. Ultimately, it may also be necessary to develop criteria for the assessment of combined installations, possibly taking into account both environmental risks and benefits.

    Continued support for the development of solutions of combined aquaculture and wind power installations is needed. Private actors play the most important role, but there is also scope for the state to support this development.

    Coexistence between offshore wind power and nature conservation

    The coexistence of wind power with nature conservation is strongly regulated in environmental legislation and concerns the assessment of permissibility in relation to conservation objectives. All countries, including Sweden, have extensive experience of environmental permitting of wind power. However, there are still significant knowledge gaps in knowledge about the impact of wind power on the marine environment, ranging from local impact on individual species to impact on populations at the sea basin level. The effects are often site-specific, which makes it more difficult to draw general conclusions about where and how coexistence may be possible.

    In most other countries, the state has steered offshore wind power away from protected areas and areas with particularly valuable species and habitats through marine spatial planning. Permit decisions are usually preceded by a site-specific assessment of whether the effects of wind power are within or above acceptable thresholds. There are currently no fixed threshold values for most effects, and decisions are instead based on the estimated impact on the conservation status of species and habitats. Clear assessment criteria for both effects and mitigation measures facilitate a uniform assessment of wind power and create predictability for both the permit review bodies and developers.

    For the establishment of offshore wind power in protected areas, the permitting process is even more complex and time-consuming, which increases the unpredictability and investment risks for the wind developer. To accelerate the development of offshore wind power, it may be necessary to divert wind power from protected areas or areas with protected species and habitats in the maritime spatial planning process. At a strategic level, it is also important to address future heightened marine protected area targets in the European Union Biodiversity Strategy.

    The coexistence of offshore wind power and nature conservation is hampered by a lack of knowledge about the environmental effects of wind power. Knowledge acquisition programmes are important in order to gradually develop robust assessment criteria for assessing wind power projects and develop conditions for construction and operation. It is important that the state collaborates with the wind power industry and academia to develop such a programme, taking inspiration from the experience of other European countries.

    Nature-inclusive design in or adjacent to wind power foundations is driven by the wind developers themselves based on the ambition for offshore wind parks to have a net positive contribution to the environment. The way in which the designs should be assessed and their actual environmental effects need to be clarified in order to assess whether they can help to make coexistence between offshore wind power and nature conservation more feasible.

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  • 12.
    Andreasson, Arne ()
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    Funegård, Peter ()
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    Bjerner, Karin ()
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    Hermansson, Annie ()
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    Management of Large Rivers to Secure Functions of  Coastal Ecosystems: Seminar organized by the Swedish Agency  for Marine and Water Management at  World Water Week 2015 in Stockholm2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Human activities upstream in rivers have negative environmental impact on coastal aquatic ecosystems of which millions of people in the developing world are dependent on for their livelihoods. Some of the main problems have been identified as hydropower development, sediment extraction and pollution with impacts on ecosystem functions and services. In order to address the environmental challenges it is important to identify critical flows in the source to sea continuum. The degradation of ecosystems in the continuum illustrates the lack of understanding of these flows that are connecting the systems. In addition the linkages in existing management systems on land, in the coastal zone and in the oceans, which are often handled separately, needs to be further understood. Hence it is crucial that existing management tools are developed into integrated management approaches, such as management based on a source to sea approach to address these linkages and to resolve the environmental challenges in aquatic ecosystems. The land-river-coasts linkages are also important in order to enable the realization of the implementation of several of the Global Goals for Sustainable Development. Availability of clean freshwater and protection of aquatic ecosystems will be two of the most important issues to improve living conditions for the poor riverine and coastal communities. Linking goal 6 and 14 and their targets and indicators is therefore essential to ensure livelihoods of poor communities that depend on the natural resources from the aquatic ecosystems. Furthermore, the implementation of the Global Goals for Sustainable  Development and targets will require concerted and coordinated actions at all levels and between all sectors. Active engagement of all stakeholders, effective dialogue, including poor communities, civil society and the private sector are also important conditions. The integration between the management systems of large rivers with their estuarine and coastal areas is a challenge and the future development will require new methodologies and innovative institutional arrangements. Hence, the application of a source to sea management approach is essential in order to secure a sustainable development.

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  • 13.
    Marine Spatial Planning - Current Status 2014: National planning in Sweden's territorial waters and exclusive economic zone (EEZ)2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a current status description, prior to the forthcoming national marine spatial planning. This report aims to provide an easily understandable picture of conditions as regards the utilisation of marine resources and the actors and claims on the sea, and is a starting point for the coming marine spatial planning process.

  • 14.
    Report: Global Trends in Fisheries Governance: Improving sustainability. Conference organized by the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management. Rosenbad Conference Centre, Stockholm 29-30 January 20142014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The new Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) of the European Union was adopted on 11 December 2013. Not only does it reform the fisheries policy governing the European waters, but for the first time in its thirty-year history, international aspects of fisheries management are included in the Basic Regulation. Until now these aspects have been covered by non-legally binding Council Conclusions.

    The conference Global Trends in Fisheries Governance – Improving Sustainability was organized by the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management, in Rosenbad Conference Centre, Stockholm 29-30 January 2014, with the aim of analysing the external dimension of the new CFP, and increasing the understanding and interpretation of the policy and its implementation at all different management levels for improved sustainability.

    The Conference explored possible tools, options, responsibilities and challenges for the implementation of the external dimension of the new CFP. It was funded by the Swedish Ministry of Rural Affairs. It focused on the European Union’s bilateral relations with third countries, and the EU as a member of regional fisheries bodies and other relevant international organizations in light of the reformed CFP.

    The CFP exists in a context of other policies, both within the EU and at a global level. The conference examined various connections with the fisheries policy and recent developments in the UN Convention of the Law of the sea, UNCLOS, the UN Convention of Biodiversity, CBD, and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations.

    The conference highlighted the challenges of protecting biodiversity, both within Exclusive Economic Zones and in international waters. Necessary measures that must be taken to safeguard the potential of fish stocks to contribute to long-term food security were also discussed.

    The sessions followed a keynote adress by Mr Eskil Erlandsson, the Swedish Minister of Rural Affairs. Each session ended with a panel discussion. The sessions adressed the following issues:

    • What political and management changes can the new External Dimension lead to and what can EU decision makers and managers do to steer developments to meet the objectives?
    • Which global opportunities and challenges do fisheries and aquaculture face? These include the future role of the fisheries sector for food security and economic development in a growing blue economy.
    • Global developments within regional fisheries management organizations, UNCLOS developments, how biodiversity in the protection of national and international waters relates to fisheries management an how fisheries can contribute to global food security.

    There were 20 presentations and 110 participants from all continents. The conference was fascilitated by Anna Jöborn, Director, the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management, and Axel Wenblad, former Director-General of the Swedish Board of Fisheries. Mr Björn Risinger, Director General, the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management, gave the concluding remarks and closed the conference.

    A set of major issues and themes emerged from the presentations and discussions. The European Union is a major producer of fish and fish products, and it is also the largest importer of fish in the world. This gives reinforced impetus to the notion that all EU Member States, and not only the producing Member States, must pay more attention to the long-term sustainability of fish stocks in and beyond EU waters. The demand for fish will continue to rise in the Union, although the supply may not increase simultaneously. This will raise questions about the European Union’s fair share of the world market of fish and fish products. The question about the substitution of feed fish for consumption was also raised.

    The need for globally responsible governance and cooperation becomes imperative in light of the increasing competition between major producers and major markets in the world.

    The conference stressed the need for transparency in the allocation of resources and in the governance of the sector. The need for transparency was also raised in connection with sharing information about subsidies. In order to improve commitment and adherence to global, regional or local government measures, meaningful consultations with all relevant stakeholders is important. The potential of Advisory Councils (AC) to foster stakeholder participation was discussed.

    The legal and biological defintions of the concept of surplus, which is the basic issue for agreements pertaining to fishin rights according to UNCLOS and now embedded in the CFP, are essential for good governance. The defintion of surplus and, in relation to that, how to calculate and assess Maximum Sustainable Yield, will become increasingly important. The conference discussed the different roles of politicians, managers and scientists in this process.

    Consumers are becoming more vocal about their demands, which can alter the behaviour of producers of goods and services. Consumers, who demand supplies of fish and fish products from sustainable fish stocks, may have a positive influence on fisheries management and may improve sustainabilty in the long run.

    The conference highlighted the importance of continuing the battle against illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fisheries. That battle has not been won as yet, and all potential means to attain this goal are required to reduce and prevent IUU fisheries. The European Commition plays a vital role in attaining this goal on a global level.

    The conference discussed the issue of sectoral integration, for example for the implementation of UNCLOS and the Biodiversity Convention, but no consensus was reached. While some participants emphasized the need for increased sectoral integration, others questioned if there are any successful examples of such integration.

    Regional fisheries management organizations play a key role for the management of resources in the high seas. The performance of these organizations has, however, varied, and some have been largely ineffective in promoting sustainable fisheries. The conference explored the performance of RFMOs and ways to improve their efficiency.

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  • 15.
    Brockmark, Sofia ()
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    Risk assessment of American lobster (Homarus americanus)2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
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  • 16.
    Nilsson, Jessica ()
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    Snoeijs-Leijonmalm, Pauline ()
    Utförare miljöbevakning, Universitet, Stockholms universitet, SU.
    Havenhand, Jon ()
    Utförare miljöbevakning, Universitet, Göteborgs universitet, GU.
    Nilsson, Per ()
    Utförare miljöbevakning, Universitet, Göteborgs universitet, GU.
    Scientific considerations of  how Arctic Marine Protected Area (MPA) networks may reduce  negative effects of climate change and ocean acidification: Report from the Third Expert Workshop on Marine Protected Area networks in  the Arctic, organised by Sweden and Finland under the auspices of the PAME  working group of the Arctic Council in Helsinki, Finland, 21-22 September 20172017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid environmental changes in the Arctic

    During the last two decades, the Arctic region has become an area of international strategic importance for states, businesses, NGOs and other stakeholders. The rapid environmental changes in the Arctic create new opportunities for different actors that may impact negatively on ecological and social values. Global climate change and ocean acidification change the habitats of the cold-adapted organisms living in the Arctic, with the risk of exterminating unique biodiversity. Human-induced emissions of greenhouse gases (primarily carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) affect the balance between energy entering and leaving the Earth’s system resulting in global warming, melting of sea-ice (which increases heat absorption by the Arctic Ocean), and associated climate change. Approximately 27 % of the carbon dioxide released to the atmosphere every year is absorbed by the oceans. This keeps the atmosphere from warming as much as it otherwise would, but creates ocean acidification. In the Arctic region climate change and ocean acidification take place 10-100 times faster than at any time in the last 65 million years.

    Intention of the workshop

    This third expert workshop on Marine Protected Area (MPA) networks in the Arctic, organised by Sweden and Finland, was held in Helsinki (Finland) and its outcome is a contribution to the ‘‘PAME MPA-network toolbox’’ project. An MPA, as defined by PAME, is ‘‘a clearly defined geographical space recognized, dedicated, and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long-term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values’. An MPA network is a collection of individual MPAs or reserves operating cooperatively and synergistically, at various spatial scales, and with a range of protection levels that are designed to meet objectives that a single reserve cannot achieve. During this third expert workshop the scientific basis of how MPA networks may reduce negative effects of climate change and ocean acidification in the Arctic region was discussed. Workshop participants were mainly scientists with expertise on Arctic marine ecosystems, climate change, ocean acidification and/or MPAs. The intention of the workshop was not to reach consensus and provide a fixed list of recommendations, but rather to summarize: (1) the best available knowledge that can already be applied to the planning of a pan-Arctic MPA network, and (2) the primary uncertainties and, hence, what necessary scientific knowledge is still lacking. As such, the six main outcomes from the workshop below contribute to the scientific basis for the potential of MPAs as a tool to meet the threats posed by climate change and ocean acidification to Arctic ecosystems and livelihoods.

    A paradigm shift for establishing MPAs is necessary

    Given the rapid environmental changes and unprecedented rate of loss of Arctic sea ice there is an urgency to protect habitats that are essential for ecosystem functioning and to link MPAs in an international network. Humanity has now the opportunity of a pro-active and precautionary approach vis-à-vis the largely intact, highly sensitive and unique cold-adapted Arctic marine ecosystems. The current paradigm for the creation of MPAs seems to be that a direct regional or local threat needs to be proven before an MPA can be designated. However, climate change and ocean acidification are global processes that operate across the whole Arctic, and therefore this paradigm should be shifted towards one that establishes MPA networks to protect what is valued and cherished before it is harmed. This calls for applying the precautionary principle and creating Arctic MPA networks that will support resilience of biodiversity and ecosystem services to climate change and ocean acidification. Scientists are aware that not all desired knowledge for planning such networks is available at this time. This includes uncertainty associated with projecting the consequences of climate change across the physical (e.g. climate models), ecological (e.g. species diversity, ecosystem processes) to the human domain (e.g. ecosystem services, human well-being). Uncertainty about the effects of climate change and ocean acidification grows when moving from physical processes to ecology and finally to human well-being. Nonetheless, general ecological principles and additional experience from other regions (e.g. Antarctica, Baltic Sea) provide sufficient basic understanding to start designing a robust pan-Arctic MPA network already now and to develop and implement the necessary connected management measures.

    Existing MPA criteria need to be adapted to Arctic conditions

    Creating an MPA network for the Arctic will require adaptation of established criteria to the unique, and rapidly changing, character of the region. For example, optimal MPA locations for some MPAs in the Arctic Ocean may not be stationary in space and time; e.g. high-biodiversity marginal ice zone (MIZ) ecosystems will become more dynamic in time and space, contracting in winter and expanding in summer, with climate change. In order to account for the migration of species with moving physico-chemical conditions (so-called ‘climate tracking’) creating dynamic MPAs along oceanographic and climatic gradients may be a feasible and effective approach. Such focus on ocean features, the integration of other effective area-based measures next to MPAs, as well as the systematic integration of traditional and local knowledge (TLK), will be essential in the process of designating MPA networks. In so doing, the vulnerability and status of Arctic ecosystems to cumulative drivers and pressures from not only regional and local scales (fishing, tourism, pollution, etc.) but also global scales (climate change and ocean acidification) should be monitored and reviewed on a regular basis.

    Arctic MPAs should be located in areas that are expected to become refugia

    Climate change and ocean acidificationdo not operate in isolation but combine with regional and local environmental stressors to affect Arctic species, habitats, and ecosystems. It is possible to lessen the total stress burden and increase the resilience of biodiversity to the impacts of climate change and ocean acidification by mitigating stresses from direct anthropogenic pressures, such as habitat destruction, fishing, shipping, discharges of hazardous substances, etc., through establishing MPA networks. This will not ‘solve’ the underlying problems of climate change and ocean acidification, which can only be done by reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions, but it will ‘buy time’ during which the underlying problems are addressed globally.

    Additional stresses should be targeted

    A key aspect is how to identify the location of prospective MPAs within a network. Since the effects of climate change and ocean acidification are unevenly distributed across the Arctic Ocean, it would be recommended to protect habitats that will act as refugia for Arctic biodiversity. For example, protecting the areas north of Greenland, where summer sea ice is projected to be most long-lasting, or parts of the Arctic Ocean where the supply of organic matter through permafrost melt, glacier melt, higher precipitation and higher river runoff (with increasing coastal CO2 concentrations through microbial activity) will be lowest. The 18 Arctic large marine ecosystems (LMEs) reflect the marine ecosystem variability in the region, and should be used to draft plans for MPA networks to more effectively consider representativeness.

    The scientific knowledge basis must be improved

    The workshop highlighted the need for a dedicated group to compile relevant geophysical and biological data for the purpose of MPA network planning. These data should include the changing environment, ‘spatial adaptation planning’, biochemical gradients, and identification of areas of high and low impact of climate change and ocean acidification. There is a wealth of information available (both reviews and analyses of knowledge gaps from CAFF, AMAP and others), that can be used for MPA planning but this information is highly scattered and needs to be collated and made spatially explicit, when possible. While the planning for MPA networks can start already now, there remains a large need for monitoring and relevant scientific research. This would require not only improved scientific cooperation between countries but also truly integrated international monitoring and research to decrease fragmentation and duplication of research.

    Identification of research priorities

    Gaps in knowledge identified by the workshop participants mainly concern the winter season, the vulnerability and resilience of the Arctic marine ecosystems and the need to support sustainable development. With respect to climate change much more is known about species higher up in the food web (seabirds, marine mammals, some fish) than about species lower in food web. For ocean acidification, most of the experimental work has been done on lower trophic levels. Much uncertainty surrounds the fate of Arctic ecosystems in a future world and how to deal with uncertainties is an issue that should be addressed in scientific studies. For example, the disappearance of strongly ice-associated species in many places will likely lead to a state-change in the associated ecosystem, yet the timing and nature of that change is currently unpredictable. While the basic drivers of the Arctic shelf-sea ecosystems are quite well understood, there is a massive lack of information at all trophic levels for the Central Arctic Ocean  LME, i.e. the deep central basin, and key species are difficult to identify. Presently, this high-latitude ecosystem is ice-bound, but climate projections indicate that it will become ice-free during summer within decades; the projected spatial and temporal variability is however very large and is likely not predictable. It is not known if native species will be able to adapt to the very rapid rates of change. It is also not known if more southern species that may migrate into the new ice-free areas will be able to adapt to certain local conditions that are not likely to change, e.g. the low nutrient availability in the Central Arctic Ocean . While many coastal areas may become more productive as melting terrestrial ice and snow transports nutrients to the sea, the Central Arctic Ocean is expected to remain nutrient-poor since no new nutrients are projected to reach this remote area with climate change. Clear is that the ecosystems of the Arctic Ocean, and especially the Central Arctic Ocean, face critical changes, which will be large and unprecedented, and that there is an urgent need for food-web studies and ecosystem modelling to inform the establishment of marine protection regimes in the Arctic.

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