Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management

Change search
Refine search result
1 - 3 of 3
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1. Malm Renöfält, Birgitta
    et al.
    Ahonen, Jani
    Ekologiska flöden och ekologiskt anpassad vattenreglering: Underlag till vägledning om lämpliga försiktighetsmått och bästa möjliga teknik för vattenkraft2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report is to provide a knowledge base on ecological flows and ecologically adapted water regulation in watercourses used for hydroelectric power generation. The report begins by providing a background to what a watercourse's flow actually is, as well as connections between ecology and flow an how regulation of the flow for hydroelectric power generation affects flow regimes and ecosystems linked to running water. The purpose of this part of the report has not, however, been to give any kind of in-depth analysis of the impact on the ecosystem; it is instead intended to provide examples of impact based on changes to different variables in the flow regime.

    The next part of the report discusses existing methods and models for producing ecological flows for a more environmentally adapted regulation. This part begins by defining an environmentally adapted flow from an ecosystem perspective. This is followed by a review of methods and models used/developed, in which models and methods are put into groups based on their complexity and scope. 

    First, a few examples of “hydrological” methods are given. These methods are based primarily on the model of water flow data and constitute around a third of the methods developed. These are often called “desktop” or “look-up” methods. They are normally based on the mean water flow or various Q-index values, which represent a flow that is exceeded during a certain period of the year, expressed as a percentage or number of days. The disadvantage of these is that they do not satisfactorily reflect the flow's variability, especially as they are often based on the mean annual flow, or flow levels that occur over a whole year. A better and more dynamic way of using these values is to look at flow levels by season. There are, however, models that better take into account variability, which are therefore considered to have a greater ecological relevance. One example of an early model of this design is “Range of Variability” (RVA), where long series of daily water flow data are used to characterise ecologically relevant components in the flow regime. The natural scope of hydraulic variability is described via various hydraulic indices, which have been developed based on existing knowledge of the flow's significance for different ecosystem components and processes. A good hydrological foundation that both reflects the variability in the unaffected flow, and provides good knowledge of how regulation has changed flow dynamics, is the basis for producing ecological flows in regulated watercourses. Then, a few examples are provided that link flows to canyon morphology and to the habitat requirements of different organisms. 

    The final part of this section gives a few examples of holistic methods. These are primarily conceptual and the premise is that it is necessary to take into account the entire ecosystem and all flow variability, with the intention of not leaving out any important elements.  Developing these methods often involves both hydraulic methods and methods using flows and habitat requirements as tools for modelling an environmentally adapted flow.  Holistic modelling can be largely described as a process in which representatives of different relevant disciplines integrate their skills and methods, in order to arrive at a care plan for the watercourse together. The idea behind methods of a holistic nature represents a modern view of running water as a natural resource, in which the entire flow spectrum is tied to the ecosystem as a whole, and where several interested parties are represented. The best methods are also based on an adaptive view of the management of natural resources, where regulation regimes and water consumption are set based on an increased knowledge. When it comes to the regulation of water for hydroelectric power generation, this is undoubtedly the view that represents best environmental engineering practice. In addition to these methods, the problem of short-term regulation is discussed, and how this could be made more environmentally friendly, for example by avoiding zero flow periods, reducing the high flow/low flow quota, i.e., reducing the variation in water flow and the rate of change in the flow.

    This is followed by a chapter on the links between ecology and flow. Once large problem in terms of setting appropriate levels for environmentally adapted flows and ecosystem requirements is the matter of predicting how much water the ecosystem will need and when different flow levels should occur. A review of relevant literature – primarily on fish, macroinvertebrates and vegetation – reveal that the greatest effect by far of changes in the flow is reductions seen in all measured ecological parameters, but that it is difficult to extract more general quantitative connections from the literature, for example in the form of threshold values. The conclusion was that existing literature does not provide a sufficient basis for drawing general quantitative conclusions that are useful for setting general guidelines for ecological flows.  Levels and frequencies of different flows must be set based on the specific conditions within a region or catchment area. As the results clearly show how much of a negative impact anthropogenic flow changes have on the ecosystem, the authors of this material emphasise the importance of establishing new research programmes to determine these connections, and doing so on a regional basis. They also highlight the lack of knowledge on flow changes and their impact on ecosystem processes.

    The next section of the report gives examples of how to develop and implement environmentally adapted flows and regulation regimes. This is currently done primarily in North America, Australia and South Africa, but a number of good examples can also be found in New Zealand, Norway, Spain, Italy, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. We have not included examples from regions that show great climatological differences from Swedish conditions and where artificial irrigation is primarily responsible for impacting the ecosystem. We have chosen to limit the examples to the northern hemisphere, primarily to those that have somewhat similar climatological and hydrological conditions to Sweden.

    Finally, a longer summary and conclusion are provided against the background of Swedish conditions. Practical application of environmentally adapted flows should take into account the different characteristics of the flow, such as magnitude, frequency, rate of change and duration. The application should also be adaptive, i.e., it is important to follow up on the response in both the abiotic and biotic environments when introducing environmentally adapted flows, regardless of the method or model chosen to determine the environmental benefits, and adapt levels according to the results. The methods should be combined with a general overview of the potential for improvement in the watercourse and an assessment of the nature conservation value, to make sure that the assessment of environmental benefit is as accurate as possible. Different areas of interest must also be weighed up, which is why an analysis of the consequences – both positive and negative – of the proposed flow changes should be included. Other than implementing an approach based on a holistic view, there are other measures of a more general nature that should produce ecological benefits in practically all regulated watercourses.  One such measure is to avoid zero flow events, particularly where there are reaches downstream, and to introduce minimum flows past all power stations. These flows could be based on more basic hydrological methods, such as some form of low flow index. Another measure is to implement the planned release of “spring floods”. These would probably not need to occur every year. If the equivalent of a medium flow was to be repeated every 3–5 years, it would likely have a positive effect on the ecosystem. Limitations to raising and lowering speeds during short-term regulation is another example of a more general measure that would likely mitigate the negative effects of hydroelectric power generation.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 2.
    Sundblad, Eva-Lotta
    et al.
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Institutes, Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, HMI.
    Gipperth, Lena
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Institutes, Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, HMI.
    Grimvall, Anders
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Institutes, Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, HMI.
    Morf, Andrea
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Institutes, Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, HMI.
    Social analys - en havsrelaterad samhällsanalys: Underlagsrapport för Sveriges inledande bedömning i havsmiljöförordningen2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Marine Environmental Ordinance (SFS 2010:1341) is part of a strategy to bring about ecosystem-based management and sustainable use of the marine environment in accordance with the EU’s the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC). The ordinance is intended to maintain or achieve good environmental status in the marine environment. Under the Marine Environmental Ordinance, the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management (SwAM) must ensure that an initial assessment is carried out on the marine environment in the Swedish waters of the two regions, the North Sea and the Baltic Sea (Articles 13–16). The initial assessment, which is to be completed by 15 July 2012 and reported to the European Commission not later than 15 October of the same year, is to provide a basis for the establishment of good environmental status, environmental targets and environmental monitoring programmes, as well as the preparing of programmes of measures by which established targets may be achieved.  The initial assessment will include conducting an economic and social analysis. The former can be divided into two parts, the first of which is designed to analyse the use of the marine region and the second to describe the cost of the degradation of the marine environment (Marine Environmental Ordinance, Article 13, para. 4, and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, Article 8.1c).  The primary purpose of the social analysis in the initial assessment is to create a picture of the underlying conditions of the upcoming work to achieve the aims of the directive, that is, good environmental status (GES, Article 9). The analysis is also intended to provide basic information for the establishment of environmental targets (Article 10) that will subsequently form the foundation of programmes of measures and administrative funding (Article 13). The assessment includes an analysis of how different groups in society can be affected by how the sea is used and by marine environmental problems and measures taken to address them. This study presents a method by which such an analysis can be conducted. The method includes a conceptual model that consists of the components 'Indirect driving forces, 'Direct driving forces , 'Environmental pressures, state  and impact', 'Impact on society', and 'Response'. The model is used in combination with a question template to analyse actors, activities and driving forces. Case studies involving three environmental problems – selective overfishing of cod and the unwanted dispersion of mercury and phosphorous – show that a large number of actors are involved, directly and indirectly. In addition, these actors operate on several levels –local/regional, national and international.  Every environmental problem requires its own analysis and has its own set of conditions. The study shows that the information needed for making decisions regarding the measures that should be taken is relatively extensive. The determination of the amount of information necessary and therefore how much should be systematically collected in future can have a great impact on the development of society and the environment. Finally, suggestions are given as to how future social analyses relating to the marine environment might be carried out.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 3.
    Dialog om vattenkraft och miljö: En redovisning av utfört regeringsuppdrag2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Regeringen har givit Havs- och vattenmyndigheten (HaV) i uppdrag att i samråd med berörda myndigheter samla berörda intressenter i en dialog med syfte att få en ökadsamsyn kring de mål som är fastställda om förnybara energikällor samt miljömål för vatten och vattenförvaltning. Resultatet från dialogen ska redovisas till regeringen senast den 31 oktober 2012. Denna rapport med medföljande missiv utgör HaV:s redovisning till regeringen.

1 - 3 of 3
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf