Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management

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  • 1.
    Albertsson, Jan
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Universities, Umeå University, UmU.
    Uppföljning av naturtypen 1140 blottade ler- och sandbottnar i Bottenviken och Södra Östersjön: En pilotstudie2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A survey of the Nature 2000 habitat Mudflats and sandflats not covered by seawater at low tide (habitat code 1140) has been done in two Swedish water districts: Southern Baltic Proper and Bothnian Bay together with an evaluation of the Swedish manual for monitoring this habitat. The project was executed summer-autumn 2014.  The investigation focused on the benthic fauna in these shallow waters. The faunal species composition, and amount of fauna differed greatly between districts. In total, 34 and 13 taxa was encountered in the Southern Baltic Proper and the Bothnian Bay respectively, while only two were common for both districts. The total abundance and biomass was considerably higher in the Southern Baltic Proper, and the variation between samples lower there, which resulted in some parameters displaying a good precision. In the Bothnian Bay, on the other hand, the precision was poor due to rather large inter-sample variation. Use of an alternative 0.5 mm sieve in the Bothnian Bay improved the situation somewhat, but probably not enough to motivate inclusion of this sieve into the monitoring procedure.   

    Some species listed as “typical” or “characteristic” for 1140 in the Swedish guidelines were encountered in the Sothern Baltic Proper. At least one was found rather frequently and associated with low variance and good precision. In this district, the amphipod Grandidierella japonica, a species new to Swedish waters was encountered. In the Bothnian Bay, no listed typical or characteristic species were encountered at all.  In the near future, the sampling zone within habitat 1140 need to be better defined in Swedish waters due to the lack of tide in the Baltic Sea. To delimit a zone that experiences a suitable frequency and duration of withdrawal of the sea water should be an important goal, to really be able to focus investigations onto faunal communities that really are characteristic of habitat 1140.  Altogether, the results indicate that the tested monitoring method may work relatively well in the Southern Baltic Proper, with a reasonable working effort, in term of achieving snapshot values with acceptable precision. For the Bothnian Bay however, a much larger sampling effort is needed to attain a similar quality, but it is questionable if this is worthwhile because of the lack of typical, and possibly other suitable, species there. Finally, the success of future follow-up surveys in this habitat is ultimately dependent on the random temporal variation of the fauna there, but this variation is unknown and not targeted in the present pilot-study.

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  • 2.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Government Agencies, National Board of Fisheries.
    Sandell, Gerhard
    Terra-Limno Gruppen, Ävrö.
    Odling av fiskyngel i kylvattenrecipienter1993Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Försök med odling av fiskyngel från larvstadiet till en för utsättningar ändamålsenlig storlek har genomförts i kylvattenrecipienterna för kraftverken i Oskarshamn och Forsmark. Abborre (Percafluviatilis) och gös (Stizostedium lucioperca) har använts som modellarter. Ett odlingssystem med flytande täta odlingskassar har utvecklats, och den enda födokällan har varit naturligt zooplankton, som insamlats med för ändamålet utvecklade anrikningssystem. Ljusets betydelse för tillväxt och överlevnad har studerats. Belysning av odlingskassama under hela dygnet har visat sig gynna tillväxten. Vidare har yngeltäthetens betydelse i relation till födotillgången undersökts. Abborre har odlats i höga tätheter med upp till 82% överlevnad och god tillväxt. Vid odlingförsök i Forsmark producerades som bäst i en enhet besatt med 25 000 abborrlarver ca 7 000 yngel med en längd av ca 3 cm; överlevnaden var alltså 28%. Gösyngel har odlats vid Oskarshamnsverket. Det sista försöksåret producerades diygt 2 000 yngel. Kannibalism har orsakat betydande mortalitet; överlevnaden var som bäst 12%. Kannibalismens orsaker diskuteras och förslag till förebyggande åtgärder framföres.

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  • 3.
    Astrauskas, Andrius
    et al.
    Institute of Ecology, Vilnius, Lithuania.
    Jovaisa, Rolandas
    Institute of Ecology, Vilnius, Lithuania.
    Sandström, Olof
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Government Agencies, National Board of Fisheries.
    Distribution and abundance of young pelagic fish: monitored by hydroacoustics in two coastal areas in the SW Bothnian Sea1994Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution of young pelagic fish in autumn was studied by hydroacoustic techniques in two coastal areas in the SW Bothnian Sea, one exposed to cooling water from a nuclear power plant and the second a reference area free from local disturbance. Generally, herring young-of-the-year dominated among pelagic fish and often constituted over 80% of the total numbers of fish counted. Young herring were concentrated to certain parts of the studied archipelagos, predominantly to the more shallow waters and to the outer parts of the small inlets commonly occurring in these coastal areas. When comparing the results of subsequent visits in the different study areas, it was evident that the estimated densities often varied markedly between days, although the distributionpatterns did not change. This was interpreted as an effect of migrations in and out of waters too shallow to be monitored by echosounder techniques. In September young herring evidently still depends upon an access to sheltered and very shallow habitats. Abundances of herring fry were higher in the cooling water exposed area compared to the reference, supporting earlier observations on positive temperature effects on fishrecruitment at this nuclear power plant.

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  • 4.
    Bergkvist, Johanna
    et al.
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Companies, Marine Monitoring AB.
    Fransson, Kerstin
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Companies, Marine Monitoring AB.
    Norlinder, Erika
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Companies, Marine Monitoring AB.
    Övervakning av främmande arter i hamnar med förenklad provtagning enligt eRAS-metoden: Fältrapport 20192021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den första fältundersökningen i Havs- och vattenmyndighetens nya övervakningsprogram av marina främmande arter har genomförts i två stora internationella hamnar och en betydande marina på Skånes kust.

    Lokalerna utgör ”hotspots” för främmande arter. Resultaten påvisar nio främmande arter av totalt 78 taxa. De relativt enkla provtagningsmetoderna visade sig vara effektiva för att påvisa förekomst av främmande arter i vattnet och på olika substrat i hamnar och marinor. Den nationella marina miljöövervakningens temaområde om biologisk störning har ett nystartat övervakningsprogram av marina främmande arter.

    Syftet är att genom att undersöka hotspots för introduktion av främmande arter så ökar möjligheten att upptäcka nyintroduktioner för landet och spridning till nya områden. Denna fältrapport sammanställer resultaten från startåret 2019 då undersöktes Malmö och Trelleborgs hamnar – båda med omfattande internationell sjöfart. Dessutom undersöktes Ystad marina med flera hundra båtplatser, nära Ystad hamn som är en av de största färjehamnarna i Sverige. Lokalerna utgör ”hotspots” där marina främmande arter förväntas introduceras till landet eller spridas från andra lokaler.

    Provtagningen genomfördes under 2019 enligt ”Rapid assessment survey” (RAS) med semi-kvantitativ skattning av förekomst av främmande arter genom påväxtpaneler, skrap från olika substrat, bottenhugg och kvalitativ visuell inspektion av konstgjorda hårdbottenstrukturer i vattenmassan och vegetation. Genom så kallade artificiella habitat av krukskärvor i plastbackar som placerades på botten möjliggjordes nykolonisering av organismer. Det svenska förslaget på övervakningsmanual utvärderades samtidigt.

    Under 2019 hittades totalt 78 taxa varav nio anses främmande för svenska vatten. Främmande arter hittades i alla lokaler. Genom RAS-metodiken och visuell inspektion identifierades 60 taxa och med artificiella habitat 48 taxa. Med den senare återfanns sju främmande arter, till skillnad mot sex med den förra metoden. Förekomst av främmande arterna av speciellt intresse är ostronpest (Crepidula fornicata), röd pungräka (Hemimysis anomala), svartmunnad smörbult (Neogobius melanostomus). I tillägg upptäcktes den nyligen till Sverige introducerade (år 2014) vitfingrad brackvattenskrabba (Rhithropanopeus harrisii) för första gången i havsbassängen Arkonahavet och Södra Öresund.

    Dessa tre arter finns med på Helcom/Ospars ”Target species list” över arter som är av särskilt intresse inom barlastvattenkonventionen, på grund av deras negativa och skadliga påverkan på havsmiljön i Östersjön och Nordsjön.

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  • 5. Bergkvist, Johanna
    et al.
    Magnusson, Marina
    Rosenberg, Rutger
    Test och utvärdering av ny övervakning av främmande arter i hamnar och utsatta områden2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Surveillance of ports and waterways is an important tool for the early discovery and prevention of new alien species. On behalf of the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management, Marine Monitoring AB carried out Test and evaluation of a new surveillance of alien aquatic species in harbours and vulnerable areas. The study is based on Methods for monitoring alien species. Protocol for sampling in harbours and waterways and the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management’s manual Monitoring manual: alien species. Alien species introduced by ballast water is considered one of the largest ecological and economical threats to the planet. Treatment of ballast water and monitoring of ports aims to reduce the spread of alien species and early discovery of new species.   

    The harbour belonging to Preem AB in Brofjorden north of Lysekil was chosen to test the protocol. Three areas were investigated, two within the harbour area and one located in the waterway leading to the harbour. The surveillance protocol covers a number of organism groups ranging from phyto- and zooplankton to benthic fauna, fouling organisms and mobile epifauna. 

     A total of 365 species were recorded, five of these are considered alien to Swedish waters (the American comb jellyfish Mnemiopsis leidyi, the dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi, the red algae Dasysiphonia japonica, the Japanese oyster Crassostrea gigas and the bay barnacle Amphibalanus improvisus).  In general, the monitoring methods worked well, but some ambiguities exist and need to be clarified. The use of a boat equipped with a winch or line hauler is recommended, as the equipment used for several of the samplings is too heavy to be carried out safely manually. Sampling is extensive and time consuming, which also makes it expensive. Coordination with the various national monitoring programmes can provide benefits both economically and in terms of the use of taxonomical experts working in the programmes.

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  • 6.
    Bergkvist, Johanna
    et al.
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Companies, Marine Monitoring AB.
    Norlinder, Erika
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Companies, Marine Monitoring AB.
    Fransson, Kerstin
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Companies, Marine Monitoring AB.
    Övervakning av främmande arter i hamnar med förenklad provtagning enligt eRAS-metoden: Fältrapport 20202021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den andra fältundersökningen i Havs- och vattenmyndighetens nya övervakningsprogram av marina främmande arter har genomförts i sex stora internationella hamnar och en betydande marina. Lokalerna utgör ”hotspots” för främmande arter. Resultaten påvisar sex främmande arter av totalt 93 taxa.

    De relativt enkla provtagningsmetoderna visade sig vara effektiva för att påvisa förekomst av främmande arter i vattnet och på olika substrat i hamnar och marinor. Den nationella marina miljöövervakningens temaområde om biologisk störning har ett nystartat övervakningsprogram av marina främmande arter. Syftet är att genom att undersöka hotspots för introduktion av främmande arter så ökar möjligheten att upptäcka nyintroduktioner för landet och spridning till nya områden.

    Denna fältrapport sammanställer resultaten från andra fältsäsongen 2020 då undersöktes

    • Karlskrona
    • Karlshamn
    • Sölvesborgs och
    • Trelleborg hamn i Östersjön
    • Malmö hamn i Öresund samt
    • Halmstad hamn i Kattegatt

    Alla dessa hamnar har omfattande internationell sjöfart. Dessutom undersöktes Ystad marina med flera hundra båtplatser, nära Ystad hamn som är en av de största färjehamnarna i Sverige. Lokalerna utgör ”hotspots” där marina främmande arter förväntas introduceras till landet eller spridas från andra områden.

    Provtagningen genomfördes enligt ”Rapid assessment survey” (RAS) med semi-kvantitativ skattning av förekomst av främmande arter genom påväxtpaneler, skrap från olika substrat, bottenhugg och kvalitativ visuell inspektion av konstgjorda hårdbottenstrukturer i vattenmassan och vegetation. Genom så kallade artificiella habitat av krukskärvor i plastbackar som placerades på botten möjliggjordes nykolonisering av organismer. Det svenska förslaget på övervakningsmanual utvärderades samtidigt.

    Totalt hittades 93 taxa, varav sex anses främmande för svenska vatten som hittades i alla lokalerna. Genom RAS-metodiken och visuell inspektion identifierades 48 taxa varav fyra främmande. Metoderna artificiella habitat identifierade 65 taxa varav fem främmande, påväxtpaneler 27 taxa varav tre främmande.

    Förekomst av främmande arterna av speciellt intresse är australisk kalkrörsmask (Ficopomatus enigmaticus) och vitfingrad brackvattenskrabba (Rhithropanopeus harrisii). Dessa finns med på Helcom/Ospars ”Target species list” över arter som är av särskilt intresse inom barlastvattenkonventionen, på grund av deras negativa och skadliga påverkan på havsmiljön i Östersjön och Nordsjön.

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  • 7.
    Bergström, Lena
    et al.
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Universities, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Aquatic Resources.
    Lagenfelt, Ingvar
    Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management.
    Sundqvist, Frida
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Universities, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Aquatic Resources.
    Andersson, Ingemar
    Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management.
    Andersson, Mathias H.
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Universities, Stockholm University, SU, Department of Zoology. Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Institutes, Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI.
    Sigray, Peter
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Institutes, Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI.
    Fiskundersökningar vid Lillgrund vindkraftpark: Slutredovisning av kontrollprogram för fisk och fiske 2002–20102013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2001, the Government authorised the construction of an offshore wind farm at Lillgrund (48 wind turbines with 2.3 MW generators). The Lillgrund wind farm is located in the Öresund Strait in the southwest Sweden and it connects the brackish Baltic Sea with the Kattegat and North Sea area. In 2002, the Environmental Court defined the final terms and conditions for the wind farm development and the extent of the monitoring programme required. Lillgrund wind farm has been operating since 2008 and is currently the largest investment in offshore wind power that is in operation in Sweden. The National Board of Fisheries conducted a monitoring programme in the area in the years before (2002–2005) and after (2008–2010) the construction of the wind farm; a base line study and a study when the wind farm was operational, respectively. The aim was to investigate the impact of the wind farm, when operating, on the benthic (bottom-living) and pelagic (open-water living) fish as well as on fish migration. These studies have partly been integrated into work conducted as a part of the research project Vindval, funded by the Energy Agency. Throughout the project period, regular contact has been maintained between the National Board of Fisheries and Vattenfall (which owns and operates the wind farm), as well as with the regulatory authority (County Administrative Board of Skåne). The main results can be summarised in a number of points below: 

    Acoustics (sound) 

    • The overall sound energy from the wind farm under water, is mainly generated by vibration from the gearbox.

    • An analysis of the sound pressure level for the wind farm area, showed a correlation between noise level and the number of turbines in the wind farm (the so called park effect), where each individual turbine helps to increase the overall noise level in the area.

    • Sound measurements from Lillgrund wind farm showed that noise levels within a distance of 100 metres from a turbine at high wind speeds are high enough to be a risk for some species of fish to be negatively affected, e.g. in the form of escape behaviour, or masking of vocal communication between individuals.

    • Stress reactions can also occur at distances of more than 100 metres from a turbine. This is due to the fact that the noise from the turbines is continuous and louder than the ambient noise levels within some frequencies.

    Benthic (bottom-living) fish

    • The development of the fish community in Lillgrund was similar to that observed in the reference areas during the study period. For the wind farm as a whole, no effect was observed on the species richness, species composition or quantity of fish.

    • Several species of bottom-living fish showed an increase in abundance close to the individual wind turbines compared with further away, especially eel (yellow eel) (Anguilla anguilla), cod (Gadus morhua), goldsinny wrasse (Ctenolabrus rupestris) and shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius). The results more likely reflect a redistribution of fish within the wind farm, rather than a change in productivity or migration from surrounding areas. The increase in abundance is probably due to the wind turbine foundations providing an opportunity for protection and improved foraging.

    • The distance within which an increased abundance could be observed was estimated for different species to be between 50–160 metres from a wind turbine.

    Pelagic (open-water living) fish

    • There was a dramatic increase in commercial fishing for herring (Clupea harengus) north of the Öresund bridge, in contrast to the south of this line, where it practically completely stopped during the first years of operation of the wind farm. This change may imply that the Rügen herring migration was affected by the Lillgrund wind farm. Due to the fact that there were other factors in addition to the wind farm contributing to the herring movements, it proved difficult to identify any correlation.  Fish migration

    • According to the study, the wind farm at Lillgrund is not a definitive barrier for the migration of silver eels (Anguilla anguilla) that migrate through and close to the wind farm area. The same proportion of the tagged and released silver eels (approximately one-third), passed the transect line with receivers, both before the wind farm was constructed (the baseline period) and after it was in operation.

    • There was no statistical difference indicating any alterations in the migration period for silver eel, but there was a tendency towards the migration taking longer at higher productivity (>20% of maximum effect) which could indicate that some eels were affected by the wind farm. There was a tendency towards the eels being recorded on fewer occasions than expected within the wind farm when functioning at low productivity (<20 %) and on more occasions than expected when functioning at higher productivity (>20 %), which may indicate that some individuals are less able to navigate past the wind farm at higher production rates.   

    Conclusions

    The study at Lillgrund has resulted in an increase in knowledge of how offshore wind farms can affect fish, which is very valuable. Even within an international perspective, there are very few studies of offshore wind farms in operation.  Three years of monitoring the effects of the wind farm on fish and fisheries is only a relatively short period. Some of the most significant results however, include the fact that some bottom-dwelling fish were attracted to the fundaments of the wind farm and the associated rocky protection layer (reef effect). In addition, an increasing noise level in the Öresund environment was observed and the results of the eel tracking may indicate that the migration pattern of some eels was, to some extent, affected by the wind farm. There is a need for caution however, when applying the results in other marine areas and on a larger scale. Lillgrund wind farm is one of the first large-scale wind farms and is located in an area with frequent and noisy shipping traffic as well as frequent and large fluctuations in external parameters such as salinity and currents. A key gap in our knowledge, despite these studies, is the lack of long term monitoring, to evaluate the long term ecological impacts of the reef effects observed. It would be ideal to re-visit the wind farm after a number of years to see how the fish populations have developed over the longer term, and see whether the observed accumulation of certain fish species near the structures continues, and if quantitative effects on the whole area are also are evident. Studies looking at whether noise as a physiological stress, can affect the fish species that live or pass through the wind farm environment are also required. In addition it would be useful to implement further studies, especially in the Baltic Sea, with regard to the cumulative impacts on migratory fish such as silver eels. The full report is available as a PDF in English.

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  • 8.
    Bergström, Lena
    et al.
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Universities, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Aquatic Resources.
    Lagenfelt, Ingvar
    Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management.
    Sundqvist, Frida
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Universities, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Aquatic Resources.
    Andersson, Ingemar
    Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management.
    Andersson, Mathias H.
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Universities, Stockholm University, SU, Department of Zoology. Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Institutes, Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI.
    Sigray, Peter
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Institutes, Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI.
    Study of the Fish Communities at Lillgrund Wind Farm: Final Report from the Monitoring Programme for Fish and Fisheries 2002–20102013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2001, the Swedish Government authorised the construction of an offshore wind farm at Lillgrund in the Öresund Strait between Denmark and Sweden. In 2002, the Environmental Court defined the final terms and conditions for the wind farm development and the extent of the monitoring programme required.  Lillgrund wind farm came into full operation in 2008, and is currently the largest offshore wind farm in operation in Sweden.  The Swedish National Board of Fisheries conducted a monitoring programme, in the area, in the years before (2002–2005) and after (2008– 2010) the construction of the wind farm; a base line study and a study when the wind farm was operational, respectively. No investigation was conducted during the construction phase. The aim was to investigate the impact of the wind farm during the operational phase on the benthic and pelagic fish as well as on fish migration. These studies have partly been integrated into work conducted as a part of the Vindval Research Programme, funded by the Swedish Energy Agency.

    Acoustics (sound) 

    • The overall sound energy from the wind farm under water is mainly generated by vibration from the gearbox.

    • An analysis of the sound pressure level for the wind farm area, showed a correlation between noise level and the number of turbines in the wind farm (the so called park effect), where each individual turbine helps to increase the overall noise level in the area. 

    • Sound measurements from Lillgrund wind farm showed that noise levels within a distance of 100 metres from a turbine at high wind speeds are high enough to be a risk for some species of fish to be negatively affected, e.g. in the form of direct escape behaviour, or masking of vocal communication between individuals. 

    • Stress reactions can also occur at distances of more than 100 metres from a turbine. This is due to the fact that the noise from the turbines is continuous and louder than the ambient noise levels within some frequencies.   

    Measurements of the underwater noise levels were carried out at varying distances from individual turbines, from longer distances away from the entire wind farm as well as within a reference site (Sjollen) 10 km north of the wind farm. The results show that the wind farm produces a broadband noise below 1 kHz as well as one or two tones where the 127 Hz tone is the most powerful (vibrations from the first stage in the gear box). The majority of the overall underwater sound energy from the wind farm lies around the tone of 127 Hz.  The maximum noise levels, generated by the wind turbine, working at full production (12 m/s), at 1 m were 136 dB re 1µPa(RMS) for the dominant tone of the turbine which was 127 Hz (integrated across 123–132 Hz) and 138 dB re 1µPa(RMS) at the full spectrum (integrated across 52–343 Hz). At a distance of 100 m from the turbine, the noise levels are reduced to 104–106 dB re 1µPa(RMS) across the full spectrum, which is close to the locally measured ambient noise in the Öresund Strait, but the noise level was still around 23 dB above the background level for the 127 Hz tone.

    An analysis of the sound pressure level for the wind farm area showed a correlation between noise level and the number of turbines in the wind farm (called the park effect). Close to the wind farm (<80 m), the noise environment was dominated by the individual wind turbine with a calculated sound propagation loss of 17•log (distance). At greater distances (80 m to 7000 m) the sound propagation loss was non-linear and less than 17•log (distance). This is explained by the fact that the other turbines in the wind farm contributed to the total noise level. At even greater distances (>7 km) the entire wind farm functioned as a point source and the sound propagation loss was once again measured as 17•log (distance). The noise levels equivalent to those recorded and calculated from Lillgrund wind farm have not been shown to cause any physical injury to fish according to the current published scientific literature. It was only within some 100 metres from a turbine at high wind speeds that the noise levels were high enough to result in the risk of negative effects on some species of fish in the form of direct escape behaviour or possible masking of communication. The response depends upon the individual species’ sensitivity to sound. Fish have been shown to become stressed when they find themselves in a consistently noisy environment, which in turn can result in for example, lower growth rates or can have an impact on reproduction. Stress in general can also, in combination with other negative factors, make them more susceptible to disease etc., due to an impaired immune system. Animals can choose however, to remain in an area despite the disturbance, if the area is sufficiently important for their survival or reproduction.  Based on the calculated sound propagation around the wind farm, salmon and eel could theoretically detect the 127 Hz tone at 250 m and 1 km distances respectively at a productivity rate of 60 and 100 %, which is equivalent to a wind speed of approximately 6 and 12 m/s. The calculated distances would be limited by the hearing ability of both fish species and not the background noise levels in the Öresund Strait. For herring and cod, the theoretical detection distance was calculated to be between 13 and 16 km respectively for a production rate of 60 and 100 %. This distance should have been greater, but is limited for these species due to the ambient noise levels in the area. These calculations indicate that fish can potentially detect sound from the wind farm at relatively long distances. Local variations with regard to depth and physical barriers such as peninsulas, e.g. Falsterbonäset in the southern end of the Öresund Strait, can however, have a large impact on the actual sound propagation. 

    Benthic Fish

    • The temporal development of the fish community in Lillgrund was similar to that observed in the reference areas during the study period. For the wind farm as a whole, no effect was observed on species richness, species composition or on the abundance of fish. 

    • Several species of fish however, showed an increase in abundance close to the wind turbines compared with further away, especially eel (yellow eel) (Anguilla anguilla), cod (Gadus morhua), goldsinny wrasse (Ctenolabrus rupestris) and shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius). The results reflect a redistribution of fish within the wind farm, rather than a change in productivity or migration from surrounding areas. The increase in abundance is probably due to the wind turbine foundations providing an opportunity for protection and improved foraging. The distance within which an increased abundance could be observed was estimated, for different species, to be between 50– 160 metres from a wind turbine. 

    • Fish distribution may to some extent have been influenced by the local acoustic environment, as a lower degree of aggregation close to the wind turbines at higher noise levels. The effect was most obvious for eelpout and eel (yellow eel). No response was seen for cod in relation to sound levels.   

    Changes in the species composition of the fish communities over time were studied in comparison with two reference areas. Of these, the northerly reference area (Sjollen) had a larger marine component than the southern reference area (Bredgrund). The species composition at Lillgrund had similarities with both of the reference areas.  The results from fish sampling with fyke nets and gill net series indicate that there have been no significant changes in the number of species, the species composition or the fish abundance after the wind farm was built, looking at the wind farm as a whole. Some changes have however been noted in relation to individual species. An increased catch of shore crab and eel (yellow eel) was observed during the first two years of production, but not in the third year. The catch of eelpout increased in all areas during the period studied, but to a slightly lesser extent at Lillgrund when compared to the reference areas. For the other species, the changes observed at Lillgrund were similar to at least one of the reference areas. These results suggest that the fish communities within the wind farm were primarily affected by the same general environmental conditions as the fish communities within the reference areas, rather than by the effects of the wind farm.  An analysis of the distribution patterns of fish close to the turbines showed an increased abundance in the immediate vicinity of the wind turbines in four of the eight species of fish studied: specifically shorthorn sculpin, goldsinny wrasse, cod and eel (yellow eel). The effects were seen already after the first year and were similar over all three years studied. An effect was also identified for eelpout, but only in 2010. The aggregation effect was seen within a distance of 50–160 metres from the wind turbines, different for the different species.  A comparison of the relative effect of different factors, based on the data from an extended survey in 2010, showed that the observed distribution pattern could be explained to a larger extent by the presence of the turbines rather than the underwater topography of the area. The analysis also indicated weak effects of the local acoustic environment on fish distribution patterns, with a reduced presence of fish at higher noise levels. The response was strongest for eelpout and eel. No response in relation to noise level was seen for cod. For shorthorn scuplin and common shore crab a response was seen only 11 Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management Report 2013:19  during the autumn. The magnitude of the effect of noise was, however, lower than the aggregation effect. Hence, fish aggregated close to the wind turbines in all conditions, but the effect was weaker when the noise levels were higher. It is recommended that the the wind farm area is reinvestigated after a number of years to follow the long-term development of the fish populations, and to see if the aggregation effect observed continues and potentially also increases over time. A prerequisite for a long term positive development of fish abundance is that the removal of fish, such as from fishing or predation by marine mammals and fish-eating birds, does not increase in the area. 

    Pelagic Fish

    • There was a dramatic increase in commercial fishing for herring north of the Öresund Link (close to the north of the wind farm) in the first years of operation of the wind farm, in contrast to south of the bridge that forms a part of the Öresund Link, where it virtually completely stopped. This change may imply that the Rügen herring migration was affected by the Lillgrund Wind Farm. Due to the fact that there were other factors in addition to the wind farm contributing to the herring movements, it proved difficult to identify any correlation.   

    The evaluation was based on catch statistics from the commercial fisheries in the Öresund Strait (ICEs subdivision SD 23) and fisheries independent statistics from ICES for adult herring (Rügen herring) (ICES subdivision SD 21–23, western Baltic Sea and southern Kattegatt) and density of juvenile fish (ICES subdivision SD 24). There was a dramatic increase in commercial fishing for herring north of the Öresund Link in the first years of operation of the wind farm, in contrast to south of the bridge where it virtually completely stopped. The reason may be largely explained by the regulations banning drift-net fishing and a favourable market for herring, but potentially also because of the Öresund Link which was completed in 2000.The potential impacts of the wind farm are therefore difficult to distinguish from the impacts of these other factors because detailed resolution in the catch statistics are missing from the years before 1995 prior to the start of the building work on the Öresund Link. The statistics independent of commercial fishing from ICES showed no significant correlation between the density of herring juveniles in the western Baltic Sea and the number of adult herring (3 years old or more) in the following years in the Öresund Strait (ICES SD 21–24). There was however a weak tendency towards a negative development of the fish population over the period 1993 – 2010. The presence of Rügen herring and their migration through the Öresund Strait is likely strongly influenced by the fact that the population shows large fluctuations between the years. In addition, there is a possible overlapping effect on the soundscape from the wind farm and the Öresund Link, which has been in use since 2000.  Overall, the variety of factors together mean that it is difficult to identify any clear results with regard to if the migration of Rűgen herring is influenced by Lillgrund wind farm.

    Fish Migration 

    • According to the results from this work, the wind farm at Lillgrund is not a barrier for the migration of the eels that come into contact with it. An equally large proportion of the tagged and released silver eels (approximately one third) passed the transect line with receivers, at Lillgrund both before the wind farm was constructed (baseline study) and after it was in operation. 

    • There was no statistically significant difference indicating any alteration in the migration speed of eels, but there were occasional longer migration times when the wind farm was working at higher levels of production (>20 % of maximum) which may indicate that some eels are affected by the wind farm. The fact that the eels also showed a tendency towards being noted on fewer occasions than expected within the wind farm at low productivity (<20 %) and on slightly more occasions than expected at higher productivity (>20 %), could indicate that they have greater difficulty in navigating past the wind farm at higher levels of productivity than lower. 

    The impact of the wind farm on migration was studied via tagging of migrating silver eels. In total, 300 acoustically individually tagged eels were included in the study and of these, 100 contributed with useable information. The baseline study period started on a small scale in 2001 and ended in 2005. The majority of the eels were tagged and monitored during the production period (2008– 2010). All tagged silver eels were released south of the wind farm. 

    The results showed that an equally large proportion of the tagged and released silver eels; approximately one third, passed a transect with receivers at Lillgrund wind farm, both during the baseline period 2001–2005, and when it was in production 2008–2009. The greatest proportion of eels passed through the deeper part of the transect by the navigation channel Flintrännan close to the Danish border at Drogden during the production phase (31 %) and baseline period (43 %). A somewhat larger proportion of the eels were registered passing the most easterly part of the transect, close to Klagshamn, during the production phase (14 %) compared with the baseline period (5 %). A behaviour which occurred during the production phase, was that some individuals moved back to the release site, after being in the vicinity of wind farm. The most commonly observed behaviour during the study in 2010 was that an eel was registered moving south of the wind farm in a more or less northerly direction, but without being registered to the north of the wind farm.  The range in the time taken for the movement of the eels from the release site to the transect running through the wind farm was very great, from four to more than 1000 hours. There was no statistically significant difference in the time taken to travel, between periods with low production (<20 % of maximum) and periods with high production (>20 %) or for individuals which passed through or outside of the wind farm.  Even if the eels did not show any statistically significant behaviour, changes in movement patterns may occur for some individuals. The fact that there was a tendency towards longer periods of time taken for movement at higher production levels (not statistically significant) (>20 %) could indicate that some individual eels are influenced by the wind farm. The proportion of eels that took more than a week (168 hours) to make the journey was 48 % during the period with higher production (>20 %) compared with 28 % at lower production. No significant difference in the proportion of passes within or outside of the wind farm respectively could be shown. The eels showed however, – a tendency of being recorded on fewer occasions than expected inside the wind farm at low production levels (<20 %) and on more occasions than expected at higher production levels (>20 %). The irregularities in the proportions, compared with the expected result, could indicate that individual eels stayed longer in the wind farm when it was functioning at higher productivity. If the eels discover the wind turbine only when they are very close and do not change course, then other factors such as the speed of the current across the shallow marine areas become significant and can mean that the time spent in the area is shorter and records fewer. At high productivity, the eels may hesitate and/or divert their course and be recorded from close to or within the area, to then be recorded on the transect outside of the wind farm.  The mechanisms that lie behind the possible impact from the electromagnetic field or the noise pattern are difficult to distinguish, as both can have an impact on the same areas. Travelling speed showed no linear relationship with the level of production in the wind farm. 

    Conclusions

    The study at Lillgrund has resulted in an increase in the understanding of how offshore wind farms can affect fish, which is very valuable. Even within an international context, there are currently very few experience-based studies of offshore wind farms in operation.  The results from three years of monitoring during the operational phase show that the effects of the wind farm on fish populations and fishing were limited. One of the clearest results showed that some benthic fish species were attracted to the foundations of the wind turbines with their associated scour protection (reef effect). In addition, the effect on the local noise environment in the form of increased noise in the Öresund Strait was documented. The results of the eel tracking study may indicate that some eels are influenced by the wind farm on their migration. Some care should be taken however, when applying the results of these studies in other offshore environments and on a larger scale. The monitoring has only been carried out for three years and thus reflects only a short-term perspective. Lillgrund wind farm is also one of the first large-scale wind farms and is situated in an area with regular and noisy shipping traffic and both frequent and large variations in environmental factors such as salinity and currents.  A key knowledge gap that remains after the completion of this work is the lack of studies over a longer period of time, to help identify the long term ecological effects of, for example, the reef effect. Ideally, the wind farm should be re-visited after a number of years to see how the fish populations have developed over the longer term, and see if the observed aggregation of certain fish species close to the wind turbines continues, and to possibly see if any quantitative effects have taken place. Studies are also required in relation to how stress may affect fish species/individuals which choose the reef-like foundations and their noisier environment. Additional studies, primarily for the Baltic Sea, are also required to establish if there are any cumulative effects on migratory fish such as silver eels.

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  • 9. Degerman, Erik
    et al.
    Calles, Olle
    Näslund, Ingemar
    Wickström, Håkan
    Påverkan på strömlevande fisk: Underlag till vägledning om lämpliga försiktighetsmått  och bästa möjliga teknik för vattenkraft2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En anläggning av en damm i ett strömmande vattensystem får stor inverkan på fiskfaunan även om en fungerande fiskväg anläggs genom själva dammkroppen. Orsaken är att ett lugnvatten skapas i ett tidigare strömmande område. Som en följd kommer fiskfaunan att förändras och arter som är anpassade till lugnvatten kommer att dominera över den tidigare strömfiskfaunan. Fiskfaunan förändras både uppströms, nedströms och i det nya lugnvattnet. 

    De fiskar som gynnas av anlagda lugnvatten ökar predationen på strömfiskar som öring, harr och lax som lever på platsen eller försöker passera igenom lugnvattnet. Även andra vandrande arter påverkas, t.ex. ål. Vid höga migrationsförluster kommer bestånden av vandrade fisk att missgynnas. Detta innebär en direkt förlust av biologisk mångfald och ekosystemtjänster i form av fiske.

    Några av de studier som redovisas har observerat stor dödlighet hos utvandrande smolt av öring och ål även i mycket små dammar, dammar ovanför små strömkraftverk, dammar för närsaltretention eller i spegeldammar nedströms kraftverk.  Effekten av även små dammar är stor och i möjligaste mån skall man undvika att anlägga konstgjorda lugnvatten i strömmande vattendragsavsnitt. Den bästa möjliga tekniken vid anläggning av fiskvägar förbi mindre dammar kan därför vara att anlägga fiskvägen förbi både dammbyggnaden och lugnvattnet. Vidare bör man undvika att anlägga spegeldammar eller andra konstgjorda lugnvatten i tidigare strömhabitat.

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  • 10.
    Ekstam, Börje
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Universities, Linnaeus University, LNU.
    Åtgärdsprogram för skaftslamkrypa: Elatine hexandra [Lapierre] DC.2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This action plan provides guidelines for preservation of the endangered plant Elatine hexandra (Six-stamened Waterwort) in Sweden. The action plan is a proposal, not a legally binding document.

    Elatine hexandra is a small, aquatic or amphibious, vascular herb in the family Elatinaceae. In Sweden, it usually appears as a summer annual on the very edge of freshwater lakes or streams. Some populations have over-wintering individuals that occur at depths well below the ice-cover. Typically, the habitat is a moderately wave exposed littoral with inorganic, silty-sandy substrate, covered with a thin layer of mud. The lake habitats have clear water, a near neutral pH and may represent one of the two lake types that are included in the habitat directive, i.e. “Oligotrophic waters containing very few minerals of sandy plains” and “Oligotrophic to mesotrophic standing waters with vegetation of the Littorelletea uniflorae and/or of the Isoëto-Nanojuncetea”.

    The species has been found in approx. 55 Swedish lakes or running waters since 1980. With a few exceptions, the occurrences are restricted to river basins of southwest Sweden with outlets in Skagerrak and Kattegat (County Administration Boards of Värmland, Västra Götaland, Jönköping, Halland and Kronoberg). In the Swedish red list Elatine hexandra is classified as Endangered (EN).

    The main threats include deteriorating water quality. Eutrophication, acidification and brownification (increase in water color and dissolved organic matter) have adverse effects on growth and reproduction of the species. Other threats include exploitation of shorelines and water level regulations. The action plan proposes measures against deteriorating water quality in lakes with known occurrences of Elatine hexandra. Further, it points out the need for revision and ecological considerations of present water level regulations. Other suggestions aim to increase the conservation awareness among land owners, nature resource managers and municipality planners. These suggestions include production and spread of an information folder and implementation of conservation related information in the database WISS (Water Information System Sweden). WISS is an open information tool used in the planning cycle of river basin management. Finally, the action plan proposes additional investigations of the distribution in lakes and of the presence in seed-banks, as well as field studies on how growth and reproduction is affected by water regulations. With help of these results, lakes suitable for restoration measures can be selected. The action plan is valid for the period 2013-2018 and the costs are estimated to approx. 1 430 000 SEK.

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  • 11.
    Florin, Ann-Britt
    et al.
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Universities, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Aquatic Resources.
    Jonsson, Anna-Li
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Universities, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Aquatic Resources.
    Gisselman, Fredrik
    Enetjärn natur.
    Svartmunnad smörbult: en invasiv främmande art i våra svenska vatten2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Svartmunnad smörbult, Neogobius melanostomus, kommer ursprungligen från området runt Svarta havet och Kaspiska havet och har spridit sig med fartygstrafik till Östersjön och Stora Sjöarna i Nordamerika. Den har många egenskaper som gynnar en invasiv fiskart: den är tålig och klarar temperaturer från -1 °C till + 30 °C och den kan fortplanta sig i både söt- och saltvatten, den blir könsmogen tidigt och kan leka flera gånger under en säsong och dessutom vaktar hanen boet vilket ökar överlevnaden av rom och yngel.

    Svartmunnad smörbult upptäcktes i Östersjön första gången 1990, i Gdanskbukten Polen. Därifrån har den spritt sig, främst med människans hjälp, till stora delar av Östersjöns kuster och i enstaka fall även upp i sötvatten. I Sverige upptäcktes den i Karlskrona 2008 och idag finns etablerade bestånd åtminstone i Blekinges östra skärgård, Kalmarsund och södra Stockholms skärgård liksom i och utanför hamnområden runt Gotland och Göteborg.

    Svartmunnad smörbult är klassad i Sverige att ha mycket hög risk för stora negativa effekter på ekosystemet. Den utgör ett hot mot biologisk mångfald genom att den kan konkurrera ut andra arter med liknande livsmiljöer som t.ex. tånglake och skrubbskädda men också genom att den äter rom och yngel och kan beta ned musselbankar. Den kan också ha en positiv effekt genom att vara föda för rovfisk som t.ex. abborre eller torsk och för fiskätande fågel. Ekosystemtjänster som livsmedelsförsörjning och rekreation kan påverkas både positivt eller negativt av arten beroende på om svartmunnad smörbult är åtråvärd som fångst eller inte. På samma sätt påverkas ekonomin negativt om den minskar förekomsten av kommersiella arter och gör fritidsfisket mindre attraktivt men positiva om det utvecklas en marknad för den. I ursprungsområdet är den en uppskattad matfisk men i Sverige finns ännu ingen avsättning.

    De mest kostnadseffektiva åtgärderna för att förhindra negativa effekter av främmande arter är att förebygga deras etablering. För svartmunnad smörbult är det i de flesta fall för sent men inrapportering vid tidig upptäckt och snabba åtgärder vid fynd i nya lokaler är av stor vikt för att minimera ytterligare spridning och negativ påverkan. De samhällsekonomiskt mest gynnsamma bekämpningsåtgärderna (då effekter på ekonomin ges samma vikt som effekter på ekosystem), bedöms vara gynnandet av rovfisk genom habitatskydd och fiskereglering och främjande av ett selektivt kommersiellt fiske. Den troligen viktigaste åtgärden för att förhindra spridning av invasiva arter är rening av barlastvatten men då detta innebär en mycket hög kostnad blir istället de samhällsekonomiskt mest fördelaktiga begränsningsåtgärderna informationsinsatser och förbud av utkast. Arten är dock inte upptagen på EU:s lista över invasiva främmande arter som medlemsländerna är tvingade att vidta åtgärder mot utan alla åtgärder mot arten sker idag på frivillig basis.

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  • 12. Gustafsson, Anna
    et al.
    Johansson, Gustav
    Persson, Johan
    Hansen, Joakim
    Arvidsson, Mia
    Fiskreproduktion i naturtyperna estuarier (1130) och laguner (1150) i Bottenviken och Bottenhavet: Pilotdrift och utvärdering 20142014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a test survey of a new manual for monitoring of fish reproduction in lagoons 1150 and estuaries 1130 within the Habitats Directive. The method is suggested by The Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management. The main purpose of this study was to test the new manual on a large scale and see how well it meets the standards for biogeographical monitoring. The investigation included 42 areas, representing habitats lagoons (habitat code 1150) and estuaries (habitat code 1130) in the Baltic marine basins of the Bothnian Sea and the Bothnian Bay. Fifty percent of the areas are protected within the Natura 2000 network.  

    The results show that there is a large variation between areas and sampling stations and that a small part of that variation is explained by sea basin, type of habitat and nature protection. Earlier studies showed other explaining factors for juvenile fish and vegetation, including topographical openness and water exchange time. Therefore, these factors should be accounted for in future investigations and analyses.    

    The differences among the two Baltic basins were very small, supporting the biogeographical monitoring on a marine Atlantic and Baltic level. However, a comparison with the Baltic proper should be done to further investigate differences in the marine Baltic region. The biological relevance of this division is indicated by the small differences between lagoons and estuaries observed in this study. Unfortunately, a major part of the choosen estuaries 1130 in this project were not estuaries as defined by the criteria given by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. The mean water discharge of the rivers entering the areas is too low. Therefore, these areas cannot be considered as representative for the habitat 1130 estuaries.  Given the extent of this project, precision calculations showed that several variables (number of species, number of typical species, the Shannon diversity index and the proportion of predatory fish) were possible to sample at an acceptable level.   

    In the report, advantages and disadvantages of the manual are discussed. Suggestions to improve the manual are presented for the sampling as well as for preparations.   

    The project is a cooperation between The Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management, The Swedish Species Information Centre and the County Administrative Boards of Uppsala, Gävleborg, Västernorrland, Västerbotten and Norrbotten. Fish sampling and presentation of the results were conducted by Naturvatten AB in cooperation with JP Aquakonsult KB, Hydrophyta Ekologikonsult, Hansen EcoResearch and Aquanalys. The project was administrated by The County Administrative Board of Gävleborg.

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  • 13.
    Havenhand, Jon
    et al.
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Universities, University of Gothenburg, GU, Sven Lovén Centre for Marine Sciences.
    Dahlgren, Thomas
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Universities, University of Gothenburg, GU, Sven Lovén Centre for Marine Sciences.
    Havsplanering med hänsyn till klimatförändringar: An Assessment of the Theoretical Basis, and Practical Options, for Incorporating the Effects of Projected Climate Change in Marine Spatial Planning of Swedish Waters2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Global climate change is causing widespread shifts in species distributions, community composition, and ecosystem services (Pereira et al., 2010, Pereira et al., 2012). In the oceans, warming is shifting species distributions toward cooler waters (Molinos et al., 2016, Pinsky et al., 2013) and stressing sessile species in-situ (e.g. coral bleaching (Donner et al., 2017), while acidification is already impacting some cold-water species (Manno et al., 2017) and threatening many other species and ecosystems (Pecl et al., 2017, Sunday et al., 2017). Patterns of climate change at regional scales are far less well understood, not least because global climate signals interact with regional processes to produce more complex patterns. Nonetheless, there are many relevant data and regional climate models for Scandinavia that have addressed these issues. Recent analysis shows that over the last 150 years or so the Baltic1 has warmed by 1-2 degrees (Meier et al., 2014), and there have been marked shifts in the seasonality of Baltic waters, with earlier onset (and longer periods) of warm temperatures over the last 4 decades (Kahru et al., 2016). Results from a comprehensive suite of projections from regional atmosphere:ocean models (Meier et al., 2012a, Meier, 2015, SMHI, 2017) show even greater future change, with average additional warming by 2-4°C average additional freshening by up to 2 salinity units, and average decrease in deep oxygen concentrations by 0.5-4 mg O2.ml-1 by the end of this century (Meier et al., 2012c, Neumann, 2010, Vuorinen et al., 2015). These models also project that changes will be highly heterogeneous over scales of 10’s to 100’s of kilometers. Model projections indicate with a relatively high degree of certainty that 5080% of winter sea ice in the northern Baltic will be lost by the end of the century (Andersson et al., 2015).  These shifts in seasonality and climate are already having effects on some species in Swedish coastal waters (Appelqvist et al., 2015, Appelqvist & Havenhand, 2016), and are projected to have even greater impacts in the coming decades (Meier et al., 2012b). Notable among these projections are freshening-driven shifts in the range boundaries of key species such as eelgrass, blue mussels, and cod (Vuorinen et al., 2015; and see Fig 1), substantial ice-loss driven reductions in populations of ringed seal (Sundqvist et al., 2012), and combinations of changing ice-cover, salinity, and temperature leading to range-shifts of key crustacean species (Leidenberger et al., 2015). Although the literature on climate-change effects in Swedish coastal waters is still relatively small, it is clear that climate change is already having effects on Swedish marine species, and that projections indicate greater effects in coming decades [with the caveat that there is likely a strong reporting bias toward significant effects: studies that found small, or no, effects of projected climate on species distributions in Swedish coastal waters (e.g. Laugen et al., 2015) are less frequently reported]. In addition to direct effects on individual species, climate change also has indirect – and potentially cascading – effects on interacting species in the ecosystem, which for the Baltic may be substantial (Vuorinen et al., 2015). Thus, the likelihood of substantive shifts in marine ecosystem composition and diversity throughout Swedish coastal waters is high (Elliott et al., 2015, Niiranen et al., 2013).  These likely shifts in ecosystem composition and diversity are critical because many marine protected areas are established to protect key species, and because ecosystem functioning and resilience to climate change are strongly related to biodiversity (Gamfeldt et al., 2015, Lefcheck et al., 2015). Loss of biodiversity has been shown to reduce ecosystem functioning, leading to loss of productivity, resource collapse, and greater sensitivity to disturbance (Cardinale et al., 2012, Worm et al., 2006). Thus, in a broad sense, biodiversity confers resilience on ecological communities (Campbell et al., 2011) and is therefore also critical to the long-term sustainability of ecosystem services in the face of environmental change (Loreau & Mazancourt, 2013).

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  • 14.
    Hertonsson, Pia
    et al.
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Companies, Ekoll AB.
    Nyström, Per
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Companies, Ekoll AB.
    Stenberg, Marika
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Companies, Ekoll AB.
    Åtgärdsprogram för temporära sötvatten: med fokus på organismer i naturbetesmarker, hällkar och alvarmiljöer2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This Action plan focuses on the preservation of temporary freshwaters occurring in pastures, rock pools and on Nordic alvar, as well as the organisms dependent on these habitats. Temporary waters are small, stagnant areas of freshwater which have a high probability of drying out on a yearly basis. It includes a wide range of habitats, ranging from small rain puddles to larger wetlands. These temporary habitats are either entirely groundwater fed or created by water from precipitation. Temporary waters are typically formed in depressions in the landscape or in the bedrock.   Today temporary waters with high biological values have become rare, primarily due to the historical draining of the landscape in favour of more arable land. Furthermore, some temporary habitats located in rock-pools were subjected to acid rain in the 1970s and 1980s, having had negative effects on the fauna and flora.  This action plan pays special attention to four target species that all are dependent on temporary waters for their survival; the diving beetle Hydaticus continentalis, the tadpole shrimps Triops cancriformis and Lepidurus apus and the clam shrimp Limnadia lenticularis. They all have in common being listed on the Swedish Red list in 2015, but also that their ecology, distribution and habitat requirements in Sweden are poorly known.   

    The guidelines in this Action plan are effective from 2019 to 2023 and include several measures that should lead to improved knowledge and improved conditions for the temporary freshwaters and their organisms. The long-term goal of the action plan is to improve the general knowledge and distribution of temporary freshwaters in the landscape, in particular of those harbouring any of the target species. In addition to this, an important challenge is to increase the awareness of authorities and the public about temporary habitats and their unique fauna. To succeed in this, their existence in the landscape as important habitats for biodiversity must be generally accepted, and guidelines to preserve these habitats must be given.  

    The short-term goal of the action plan is to identify and characterise existing and potential temporary freshwaters for the target species, with traditional mapping methods as well as with supplementary environmental DNA (eDNA) monitoring.  The Action plan proposes for instance the following actions: 

    Create or restore at least 20 habitats for each habitat type.  

    Inventory of known and historic localities of the target species   

    Inventory of target species by means of eDNA in temporary waters 

    Educate unexperienced inventors, as well as personnel working with advice and management at local and regional authorities 

    Present strategies to reduce conflicts between creation of permanent waters and the conservation of temporary waters 

    Write a literature review that result in guidelines for monitoring and conservation of temporary habitats and their organisms. 

    Re-introduce target species where there may be requisites for a longterm conservation.  

    Form at least four protected areas (e.g. nature reserves) to benefit the target species  The expected costs for the conservation measures, to be funded from the Swedish Agency for Water and Marine management allocation for action plans is estimated at € 184 000 during the actions plans' validity period 2019-2023.  

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  • 15.
    Huseby, Siv
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Universities, Umeå University, UmU, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre, UMSC.
    Naturtypsbestämning av utsjöstationer i Bottniska viken2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Four offshore monitoring stations in the Gulf of Bothnia were in this study classified according to the Habitat Directive and EUNIS/ HUB. The stations were sampled with Van Veen grab and later taxonomically analyzed in the laboratory. For offshore stations there are three possible Natura2000 types: 1110 sandbanks, 1170 reefs and 1180 submarine structures made by leaking gases. None of the stations could fit the descriptions of any of these Natura 2000 habitat types. The sediment at all four stations was mostly clay (>90%) with elements of sand and silt and ferromanganese concretions. At all stations the amphipod species Monoporeia affinis and/or Pontoporeia femorata dominated the biomass. The EUNIS/HELCOM HUB classification for all stations was ABH3N1 Baltic aphotic muddy sediment dominated by Monoporeia affinis and/or Pontoporeia femorata.

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  • 16.
    Johansson, Gustav
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Companies, Hydrophyta Ekologikonsult.
    Åtgärdsprogram för sällsynta kransalger längs kusten: Raggsträfse Chara horrida L.J.Wahlstedt, 1862 Barklöst sträfse Chara braunii C.C.Gmelin, 1826 Axsträfse Lamprothamnium papulosum (K.Wallroth) J.Groves, 19162020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this action plan is to improve conditions for viable populations of the following three species of charophytes in Sweden:  

    Chara horrida is found in brackish water along the Baltic sea coast, from the border between the counties of Scania (Skåne) and Blekinge in the south to Uppland in the north, including the shores of the Baltic islands of Öland and Gotland. Chara horrida is probably endemic to the Baltic Sea. Outside Sweden, the species has only been found in a small number of sites in Denmark, Germany, Estonia and Finland.   

    Chara braunii is a freshwater species. Today its main Swedish population is found in very low salinity areas in the Bothnian Bay, where conditions much resemble freshwater habitats.   Lamprothamnium papulosum is a very rare marine species that in Sweden presently only occurs in Bohuslän on the west coast.   

    Charophytes grow on softer bottoms where finer sediments can accumulate. The species that occur around the Swedish coast are therefore generally only present in relatively wind and wave protected environments, in shallow, protected bays, and in estuaries. Charophyte habitats are important nursery habitats for fish.   

    All three species are sensitive to eutrophication and especially to the growth of filamentous algae caused by eutrophication. Coastal development and other physical disturbances such as dredging and boat traffic, are important threats. Vulnerability to eutrophication and a shared threat assesment with a wide range of species in similar coastal environments makes the three species suitable as indicator and/or umbrella species.  

    In order to stop ongoing habitat loss and aiming towards a recovery with viable populations of Chara horrida, Chara braunii and Lamprothamnium papulosum along the Swedish seaboard actions against eutrophication are of highest priority. Presence and environmental requirements of these species have to be considered when exploiting or otherwise disturbing their habitats. New protected areas in shallow marine environments as well as customized management of existing protected areas are recommended. Knowledge about the species needs to be made easily available and distributed.  

    The cost for conservation measures recommended by this action plan is estimated at 11 900 000 SEK during 2020-2024.

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  • 17.
    Karås, Peter
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Government Agencies, National Board of Fisheries.
    FISKREKRYTERING ! BOTTNISKA VIKEN1993Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    1. The combined effect of reproductive strategy and environmental factors on the recruitment process is discussed for the most important Balticfish species.

    2. A recruitment model primarily based on growth-related mortality during the first year of life was developed for perch (Pereafiuviatilis L.). Since growth was in general not food-limited the main factors influencing recruitment were temperature and day-length related. The model predicts growth and variations in year-class strength in the Gulf of Bothnia populations. The recruitment in most other species with similar temperature preferences inhabiting the region, known as warmwater species, was similarly considered to be governed by the abiotic factors.

    3. The recruitment of several autumn and winter spawning fish in the Gulf of Bothnia, species which have relatively low temperature preferences, is greatly influenced by the abiotic conditions during the first winter. To model recruitment for these species winter conditions must consequently be considered.

    4. Areas occupied by larvae and fry of spring spawning herring (Clupeaharengus L.) during the early mortality, when the yearly recruitment is established, were extensively studied in the Gulf of Bothnia. Shallow and sheltered habitats, previously not considered to be relevant for herring recruitment, were demonstrated to be of great importance as nursery areas.

    5. The importance, i.e. its productive qualities, of a coastal area for recruitment can be evaluated from relevant recruitment models, comprehensively treating abiotic and biotic regulating factors. The geographical extension of recruitment areas may be estimated based on knowledge of the general distribution of early developmental life stages in relation to morfometrical characters of the potential environment.

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  • 18. Kinsten, Björn
    De glacialrelikta kräftdjurens utbredning i Sverige2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For a long time glacial relict crustaceans have comprised six species, namely Gammaracanthus lacustris (Relictacanthus lacustris), Limnocalanus macrurus, Monoporeia affinis (Pontoporeia affinis), Mysis relicta, Pallasea quadrispinosa and Saduria entomon (Mesidothea entomon), which are included in this report. Since M. relicta in Sweden now consists of two species, namely M. relicta s. str. and M. salemaai, then glacial relict crustaceans in Sweden actually includes seven species. This study, however, refers to the both of the last mentioned species as M. relicta s.l. Glacial relict crustaceans have attracted great interest due to their distribution and history of migration. It has also been shown that they play an important role in the ecosystems of many lakes, often as sources of food for fish.

    Glacial relict crustaceans have sometimes served as bioindicators for environmental disturbances like acidification, eutrophication and metalpollution. Since glacial relict crustaceans don´t survive high temperatures, they are interesting organisms to consider in the search for biological indicators which display the ecological effects of global warming. A description of the current distribution of glacial relict crustaceans in Sweden must be part of a first step towards a program for environmental monitoring, which includes glacial relict crustaceans. This report presents the distribution of glacial relict crustaceans in Sweden.

    735 lakes have been investigated, with a more or less expressed aim of finding glacial relict crustaceans. Kalmar is the county most studied, with investigations of 96 lakes.  In 551 lakes, one or more glacial relict crustacean species have been noted. The area with the most lakes containing glacial relict crustaceans is the county of Västernorrland (83 lakes). The distinctly freshwater species G. lacustris and P. quadrispinosa have not been found in the county of Halland or in regions close to the coast of Västra Götaland County.

    In nearly 90% of the lakes with glacial relict crustaceans, the populations are natural. Among those lakes, seventeen are situated above the highest shoreline (HS). In nineteen lakes, glacial relict crustaceans were not found at all during the latest investigation although they were found earlier. The most common species, M. relicta and P. quadrispinosa, have been found in 423 and 312 lakes, respectively. The least common species, G. lacustris and S. entomon, have been noted in 35 and 10 lakes, respectively. Lakes where one or several glacial relict crustaceans have been introduced are included among the lakes investigated. Introductions have been made in 86 lakes, which are mainly situated in the north of Sweden and are regulated because of hydroelectric purposes. The introductions are mainly of the two species M. relicta and P. quadrispinosa, which are established in 49 and 16 lakes, respectively. G. lacustris is established itself in three lakes after introduction.

    Distribution downstream from lakes where glacial relict crustaceans have been introduced has been found in ten lakes. M. relicta, P. quadrispinosa and G. lacustris have been discovered in eight, five and one of the lakes, respectively. However, downstream distribution has not been examined in depth and is most likely extensive. Most of the lakes (33) with introduced populations or populations which have spread downstream are situated in the county of Jämtland.  In 21 lakes where glacial relict crustaceans were introduced, no rediscoveries have occurred despite follow-up investigations. No follow-up has been conducted in ten lakes where glacial relict crustaceans were introduced.

    Among the lakes investigated and lakes with glacial relict crustaceans, small lakes are more common than large ones. The most common maximum depth of the lakes investigated and lakes with glacial relict crustaceans is 15–20 meters. Classification of lakes containing glacial relict crustaceans according to the number of species found per lake shows that the number of lakes decreased as the number of species in the lakes increased. Among the glacial relict crustacean species that occur naturally in lakes above HS in Sweden, P. quadrispinosa occupied a unique position. Of seventeen lakes with natural populations of glacial relict crustaceans above HS, P. quadrispinosa has been recorded in fifteen lakes and is the only species occurring naturally in fourteen lakes. P. quadrispinosa was, with one exception, also the only species found in rivers and streams. In addition, it is the dominating species in the shallowest lakes and seems to be the species that tolerates the highest temperatures. G. lacustris, on the other hand, seems to be the species most sensitive to high temperatures. Despite the large number of lakes investigated many opportunities for discovering glacial relict crustaceans in lakes below HS still exist in many counties. In one area southeast of the lake Vättern, it is possible to find additional lakes with glacial relict crustaceans above HS.

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  • 19.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Sjöfartshögskolan (SJÖ)..
    Sjöfart och naturvärden vid utsjöbankar i centrala Östersjön: Havsplanering kan reducera konflikter2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten beskriver effekter av sjöfart på naturvärden i havsområdet vid de tre stora utsjöbankarna Hoburgs bank, Norra Midsjöbanken och Södra Midsjöbanken i centrala Östersjön. Utsjöbankarna som är belägna i svensk ekonomisk zon hyser hotade djurarter och viktiga fiskeområden. Två större marina Natura 2000-områden finns i området. Havsområdet genomkorsas av mycket intensiv fartygstrafik. I rapporten diskuteras hur konflikter mellan sjöfart och skydd av naturvärden kan reduceras i området, bland annat genom modifieringar av fartygsrutter.

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  • 20.
    Nyström, Per
    et al.
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Companies, Ekoll AB.
    Stenberg, Marika
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Companies, Ekoll AB.
    Hertonsson, Pia
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Companies, Ekoll AB.
    Kalkningens betydelse för flodkräftan2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanställningar av kalkningseffekter på flodkräftbestånd gjordes under 1980- och början av 1990-talet. Resultaten visade i flera fall att beståndsminskningar upphört efter kalkning, men i andra fall kunde ingen effekt observeras trots förbättrad vattenkvalitet. En slutsats var att en längre tids kalkning krävs för att se effekter på bestånden.

    Data avseende kräftförekomster finns samlade i den Nationella Kräftdatabasen som innehåller cirka 24 000 förekomster av flod- och signalkräfta. Genom att kombinera med GIS-skikt över åtgärds- och målområden för kalkning och koppla provfiskedatum till kalkstart analyserades förändringar i fångster och individstorlek i förhållande till hur länge kalkningen pågått. Även en jämförelse av fångster i kalkade respektive okalkade vatten genomfördes.

    Via länsstyrelserna inhämtades information om utvecklingen i kalkade målområden: vilka som fortfarande hyser flodkräfta, vilka som förlorat bestånden samt de där signalkräfta konstaterats. Efterhand som data utvärderades uppkom behov av att förklara de stora variationerna i fångstresultat. Därför genomfördes fördjupade analyser av ett urval kvantitativa provfisken från sjöar där uppgifter om substrattyp och förekomst av signalkräfta fanns tillgängliga.

    Resultaten visar följande:

    • Antalet kalkade målområden med flodkräfta har minskat dramatiskt till följd av ökad utbredning av pestspridande signalkräftor. Enligt länsstyrelserna förekommer flodkräfta som motiv för kalkning i 390 sjöar och 246 vattendrag. Av dessa finns flodkräfta med säkerhet kvar i 30 % av sjöarna och 22 % av vattendragen, medan signalkräfta förekommer i 16 % av sjöarna och 28 % av vattendragen. I 20 % av sjöarna och 33 % av vattendragen är flodkräftan med säkerhet försvunnen och i 50 % av sjöarna och 46 % av vattendragen är det inte känt om den finns kvar. Särskilt i de sydöstra delarna av landet uppges flodkräftan vara försvunnen, eller ha osäker förekomst, i många av de kalkade vatten där bestånd tidigare förekom.
    • En försiktig tolkning av resultaten är att kalkningen haft positiv effekt då de flesta analyser visar att fångsterna av flodkräfta i kalkade och okalkade vatten inte skiljde sig nämnvärt. Analysen av det största provfiskematerialet (141 kalkade sjöar och 143 okalkade sjöar) visade emellertid att det i genomsnitt fångades något fler flodkräftor i sjöar som inte kalkats. Detta kan tolkas som att kalkningen inte fullt ut återskapat samma beståndstätheter som innan försurningen etablerades. Det är emellertid också sannolikt att de okalkade sjöarna, som aldrig försurats, naturligt har högre kalciumhalter och sannolikt även högre näringsstatus än de kalkade. Resonemanget antyder att kräftbestånden i de kalkade sjöarna, till följd av naturgivna förutsättningar, inte fullt ut kan förväntas nå samma tätheter som i de okalkade sjöarna.
    • Nästan alla kalkade vatten som provfiskades inom 10 år efter kalkstart uppvisade låga fångster. Det indikerar att bestånden var påtagligt påverkade av försurning och att eventuella effekter av kalkningen ännu inte visat sig i provfiskena. Efter kalkning i 15–25 år förekom ganska många bestånd med höga tätheter, men också många där fångsten var liten. Det antyder att responsen påkalkningen var mycket varierande. I viss utsträckning skulle detta kunna tillskrivas etablering av signalkräfta. I ännu högre grad kan effekten av signalkräftan förklara de, nästan genomgående, svaga fångsterna i vatten som kalkats i mer än 25 år.
    • Andra orsaker än signalkräfta till den stora variationen i fångst av flodkräfta i kalkade sjöar var andel hårdbotten, tätheter av fisk, höjd över havet och vattenfärg. Fångsten av flodkräfta var större i lågt belägna sjöar, med mindre färgat vatten och en större mängd fisk. I sjöar utan signalkräftförekomst tenderade fångsten av flodkräftor att öka med andelen hårdbotten oavsett omsjöarna var kalkade eller ej. Där signalkräfta förekom var fångsterna av flodkräfta alltid låga, oavsett bottensubstrat.
    • Sammantaget visar utvärderingen att eventuella effekter av kalkning på flodkräftbestånd till stor del överskuggas av den ökade spridningen av signalkräfta och därav följande förlust av flodkräftbestånd. Historiskt har försurningen påverkat många flodkräftbestånd och i de få vatten som har tidsseriedata visar provfiskena på ökade fångster efter kalkning.Kalkningsinsatser bör prioriteras i försurade vatten där flodkräftan har en rimlig chans att överleva på sikt, det vill säga i de områden där signalkräfta saknas.
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  • 21. Näslund, Ingemar
    et al.
    Degerman, Erik
    Calles, Olle
    Wickström, Håkan
    Fiskvandring –  arter, drivkrafter och omfattning i tid och rum: Underlag till vägledning om lämpliga försiktighetsmått  och bästa möjliga teknik för vattenkraft2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This compilation of literature summarises the current state of knowledge on fish migration. The goal has been to show which driving forces are behind fish migration, in which environments they are migrating, when migration takes place and which species are involved. The report ends with a review of migration requirements for Swedish freshwater species; summarised in Appendix 1.

    Optimal habitats for growth, survival and reproduction for various stages of a fish life cycle are separated in time and space. As a result, all or parts of a fish population will shift or migrate between different habitats. Driving forces behind this migration include improved food supply and growth, reproduction, the avoidance of difficult physical conditions and the dispersal of the species.

    A common pattern for fish in watercourses is that fry leave their birthplace and find their way, whether actively or passively, to a habitat where they will undergo their first growth phase. From there, another migration takes place to the sea, a lake or a lentic environment. Once the fish is sexually mature, it returns to its birth habitat in order to reproduce. The distances travelled may be short but may also, as with salmon, span over hundreds or even thousands of kilometres. 

    In the context of hydroelectric power, the interest has thus far been focused on the upstream spawning migration of salmonids, but practically all species of fish migrate to a greater or lesser extent at some point in their life cycle. Giving the name “migratory fish” to salmon, sea trout and eel alone is therefore incorrect. As many as 32 of our freshwater species have been found in fishways in Sweden, Poland and the Czech Republic. Further, migration does not take place solely during spawning periods; it also occurs at other times of the year. 

    It is clear that the conditions for maintaining genetic variation in the stock deteriorate with the limitation of migration opportunities. It also decreases the resilience of the fish populations, i.e., their capacity to recover from environmental stress or adapt to new environmental conditions, such as a warmer climate.  The needs of freshwater fish to have migration opportunities, and the negative effects on species that are not able to migrate, make it clear that the best possible technology should be used for hydroelectric power generation so that migration routes are maintained or restored.

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  • 22. Rafstedt, Thomas
    Effekter av kalkning på myrvegetation: Resultat från 20 års uppföljning av kalkade våtmarker2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kalkning av kärr och andra myrmarker har idag stor omfattning i flera län och totalt kalkas närmare 100 km2 myr i landet. En långtidsstudie av kalkningens växtekologiska effekter påbörjades av Naturvårdsverket 1994. Syftet med denna fortlöpande studie är att kontrollera vad som händer med myrvegetationen efter kalkning och om det sker någon återhämtning efter avslutad kalkning.  Metodiken som har använts vid vegetationsanalyserna är anpassad till att följa gradvisa och långsiktiga förändringar inom såväl kalkobjekten som referensobjekten. Förändringarna skattas på ett objektivt sätt inom utlagda fasta provrutor. 

    Den initiala och mest påtagliga förändringen vid kalkning av våtmarker är att det ofta heltäckande bottenskiktet av vitmossor slås ut och ersätts av naken dy och ett i regel glest, men ibland artrikt, skikt av brunmossor. Det levande vitmossesubstratet, där många små arter som sileshår och tranbär är rotade, försvinner. Det nakna substratet ger möjlighet för andra arter, som normalt inte klarar konkurrensen i den här miljön, att etablera sig.  Vissa pionjärarter är snabbt på plats efter påbörjad kalkning och blommar upp, för att därefter många gånger åter försvinna. Nick-, bränn- och päronmossa kommer in i stor mängd men försvinner sedan efter några år. Brunmossornas yttäckning kan på vissa myrtyper öka kraftigt, särskilt av arter som blek skedmossa och räffelmossa, medan den på andra myrtyper även efter lång tid förblir mycket låg. Även för regionen sällsynta arter kan etablera sig då de rätta förutsättningarna uppträder.  Efter en längre tid av upprepad kalkning kan mer kalkkrävande brunmossarter invandra. Det från början kalkfattiga kärret kan då sägas ha kommit in i en fas mot rikkärr med förekomst av arter som stor fickmossa och piprensarmossa. Även kalktåliga arter av vitmossa, som krokvitmossa, knoppvitmossa och purpurvitmossa, kan etablera sig. Fältskiktets förändringar varierar på de kalkade myrarna. Generellt ökar emellertid tätheten av gräs och halvgräs och därmed även lagret av icke nedbruten förna. Detta gäller särskilt blåtåtel, flaskstarr, trådstarr, tuvull och tuvsäv. 

    I blöta kärr kan arter som vattenbläddra, sjöfräken och vattenklöver öka i förekomst.  Arter som generellt minskar efter kalkning är sileshår, tranbär och rosling. Småvuxna arter som missgynnas när vitmossorna försvinner, halvgräsen tätnar och förnaproduktionen ökar.  De myrar där kalkningen avslutats är av särskilt intresse för studier av återkolonisationen. Dessa myrar kan ge en antydan om åt vilket håll utvecklingen går och om de skador som uppstår efter kalkning med tiden kan läkas.  Resultaten från flertalet kortvarigt kalkade myrarna indikerar att bottenskiktet, där de kraftigaste initiala förändringarna uppstår efter kalkning, återgår till ett fattigkärrstadium när kalken väl lakats ut. Samma vitmossarter, som fanns före kalkning, återkommer med början i kantzonen varefter spridningen sker fläckvis ut över hela myren där fält- eller förnaskiktet inte är alltför tätt. De kalkgynnade arter som etablerat sig efter kalkningen försvinner återigen. De här resultaten är positiva eftersom det kan innebära att kalkningens påverkan på bottenskiktet inte är irreversibel och att en naturlig återhämtning sker efter avslutad kalkning. Data med långa tidsserier finns dock idag endast från några få myrar varför resultaten bör tolkas försiktigt. Data från referensmyrarna visar få förändringar i fältskiktet under de senaste 20 åren, förutom i Halland där tätheterna av graminider har ökat betydligt till följd av stort kvävenedfall. Vad gäller bottenskiktets vitmossor så har dessa ökat sin utbredning på myrar i bl.a. Dalarna, Jämtland och Västerbotten där vitmossorna i första hand breder ut sig på tidigare nakna dybottnar. Det sker även artförändringar på referensmyrarna. Genomgående är förändringarna små och orsakas troligen främst av fluktuationer i nederbörd och humiditet.

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  • 23.
    Sandström, Alfred
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Universities, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Aquatic Resources.
    Harr i Bottniska viken: en kunskapssammanställning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Coastal populations of European grayling (Thymallus thymallus, L.) are unique to the Bothnian Bay. There are two main population types, one that spawns in the sea and spend the entire life-cycle in brackish water. The other form is anadromous, spawns and recruits in rivers that drain into the sea. The main distribution area at present is in the Swedish northern coastal areas in the Gulf of Bothnia in the counties of Västerbotten and Norrbotten.   

    There are many critical knowledge gaps as concerns coastal grayling populations. There is, nevertheless, a general consensus that the coastal populations have declined markedly over the last 100 years, particularly in Swedish areas south of the Northern Quark and along the Finnish coast. The main knowledge gaps that need to be mitigated have been identified and listed:  

    • grayling population structure

    • ecology and life-history traits

    • influence of fisheries

    • methods for assessing the status of coastal grayling populations

    • distribution and characteristics of grayling essential habitats

    • development of targeted restoration efforts in grayling rivers adapted to the specific needs of grayling  

    The text summarises the available literature on coastal grayling. It also gives examples of methods that can be used for improving the knowledge of coastal grayling, its habitats and the current management of the stocks.

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  • 24.
    Sandström, Olof
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Government Agencies, National Board of Fisheries.
    Kustfisk och fiske i Bottniska viken1994Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kunskapen om Bottniska vikens kustfiskbestånd har tidigare baserats på undersökningar av främst lokal karaktär. Inför Bottniska viken året beslöts att Fiskeriverket, med stöd av Naturvårdsverket, skulle genomföra ett mer enhetligt program som benämndes Kustfiskeprojektet. Fyra områden valdes, Rånefjärden, norra Kvarken (Holmöarna/Norrbyskär), Hornslandet och Gräsö östra skärgård, för studier av fiskbestånd och fiske. Resultaten sammanfattas här tillsammans med data från jämförbara tidigare undersökningar. Ett särskilt delprojekt med inriktning mot områdets sikar och deras rekrytering genomfördes i samarbete med Vilt- och Fiskeriforskningsinstitutet i Vasa och Helsingfors.

    Trots att Bottniska vikens kust har en lång nord—sydlig utsträckning med konsekvenser för bl a vinterns längd och de generella produktionsförhållandena, är skillnaderna i fisksamhällets artsammansättning och täthet förhållandevis små mellan lokaler, förutsatt att man studerar likvärdamiljöer. I innerskärgårdar dominerar abborre och mört, medan sik ochströmming blir vanligare i exponerade områden. Vissa arter, t ex björkna och siklöja, har dock en utbredning som är förskjuten mot söder respektive norr. Uppfattningen att kustfisksamhället utarmas mot norr som en följd av födobrist, finner inget stöd i denna undersökning. I väl utvecklade skärgårdar finns fisk i höga tätheter oavsett breddgraden. Födobrist borde påverka individens tillväxt. När längdökningen hos abborre jämfördes mellan olika områden fanns dock ingen generell korrelation till breddgraden.

    Kustfisksamhället utgörs av en blandning av marina och limniska artersom kan separeras i två grupper efter arternas temperaturpreferens ochvandringsbenägenhet; stationära varmvattenarter och migrerande kallvattenarter. Stora delar av Norrlandskusten saknar egentliga skärgårdar.I dessa områden förekommer varmvattenarterna endast i de fåtaliga skyddade miljöerna, medan man bara några hundra meter närmare öppet havhar ett samhälle dominerat av sik och strömming även under sommaren.I de stora skärgårdarna i norr och söder har däremot abborre, gers ochmört en vid utbredning, medan kallvattenarterna hänvisas till ytterskärgården. I de södra skärgårdarna vandrar mörten ofta långt ut mot öppethav i det varma ytvattnet under sommaren. I Bottenviken och norraBottenhavet ser man inte detta beteende, sannolikt beroende på avvikande temperatur- och födoförhållanden.

    Med ledning av enkätsvar och fiskeristatistik skattades totalfångsterna 1991 av de viktigaste arterna sik, lax, siklöja och strömming i Bottniska viken till respektive ca 900, 500, 1 800 och 2 500 ton. Fritidsfisket tog en betydande del, för sötvattenarter som abborre och gädda ofta mer än 75% och för sik ca 50%. Norrbotten är det enda län där yrkesfisket överväger, främst beroende på trålfisket efter siklöja. Fiske med fasta redskap som laxfällor är vanligt. Ca 1 200 fiskeplatser nyttjades under 1992—1993 i Bottniska viken. Även här överväger binärings- och fritidsfiskarena. Sportfiske förekommer särskilt vid de sydligare kusterna, där det riktas motgädda, abborre, öring och strömming.

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  • 25.
    Schmidtbauer Crona, Jan
    Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management.
    Tillämpning av ekosystemansatsen i havsplaneringen2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport beskrivs hur ekosystemansatsen kan tillämpas i svensk havsplanering. I inledande avsnitt redogörs för hur ekosystemansatsen beskrivits internationellt och hur den tolkats i Sverige.  Ekosystemansatsen, eller the Ecosystem Approach, har fått stort genomslag i politiken kring användning och förvaltning av naturresurser. Den nämns som vägledande princip i allt från EU:s fiskeripolitik1 till praktiskt inriktad lokal förvaltning av regnskog i Malaysia2. Ekosystemansatsen är också en utgångspunkt för EU:s havsmiljödirektiv3 och har lyfts fram i havsplaneringsutredningens betänkande Planering på djupet4.  Ekosystemansatsen lämnar utrymme för tolkning och ställer krav på konkretisering i specifika tillämpningssammanhang. Orsaker till det är bland annat att tillgängliga definitioner är generella till sin karaktär och omfattar flera dimensioner. Att tillämpa ekosystemansatsen i svensk havsplanering förutsätter därför konkretisering utifrån havsplaneringens karaktär, avgränsning, process och innehåll. Huvudfrågan är att analysera vilka möjligheter som havsplaneringen ger för tillämpning av ekosystemansatsen. Samtidigt är det just havsplaneringens karaktär, avgränsning, process och innehåll som ekosystemansatsen ska sätta sin prägel på. En tolkning och konkretisering av ekosystemansatsen i ett havsplaneringssammanhang är också en förutsättning för att i senare skede kunna utvärdera hur framgångsrik tillämpningen av ekosystemansatsen har varit.

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  • 26.
    Sundberg, Per
    et al.
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Companies, SeAnalytics AB.
    Axberg, Alizz
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Companies, SeAnalytics AB.
    Daragmeh, Nauras
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Companies, SeAnalytics AB.
    Panova, Marina
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Companies, SeAnalytics AB.
    Obst, Matthias
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Companies, SeAnalytics AB.
    Genetic methods in environmental monitoring: Early detection and monitoring of non-indigenous species based on DNA2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Collecting marine hard bottom organism with autonomous techniques in combination with DNA analyses for species identification has proven to be efficient monitoring of biodiversity and detection of non-indigenous species. This methodology provides well to early warning surveillance of invasiv alien species. 

    The University of Gothenburg has, on behalf of the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management and in collaboration with SeAnalytics AB, carried out two pilot studies to investigate whether plankton samples and settling panels in combination with DNA-based species identification is an effective method for early detection and continuous monitoring of non-indigenous species (NIS). The surveys were conducted during the winter, spring and summer of 2020 at various locations along the Swedish west coast, from the fjord Brofjorden in the north to Helsingborg in the south. The sites were chosen based on previous modelling (Bergkvist et al. 2020a) hotspots for introduction of alien species.

    The settling panel study followed the protocols for monitoring of hard bottom organisms as set up in the international ARMS (Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures) project (Leray & Knowlton, 2015; Obst et al. 2020). A total of 16 ARMS settling panels were deployed during the winter and spring months and were submerged between 3–4 months before taken up for further processing and analysis. Plankton samples were taken from six of these sites, on three different occasions, and two samples from each site or occasion.

    DNA was extracted from the settling panels and plankton and metabarcoding libraries prepared for three molecular markers (COI, 18S, ITS), together with positive and negative controls, altogether 284 libraries. Thirty-four NIS were recorded, of which fourteen are classified as invasive alien species (IAS) by the Swedish Species Information Center and on the list of Invasive Alien Species of Union concern. The remaining 20 NIS are listed on the Aqua-NIS list and need to be further investigated for their alien and invasive status in the country.

    The tested methods perform well both for early detection of unknown NIS as well as for regular monitoring of already known NIS. The chosen markers COI and 18S performed well, while ITS did not produce sufficient species observations and can be omitted as a marker gene.

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  • 27.
    Sundberg, Per
    et al.
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Companies, SeAnalytics AB.
    Obst, Matthias
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Companies, SeAnalytics AB.
    Bourlat, Sarah J.
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Companies, SeAnalytics AB.
    Bergkvist, Johanna
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Companies, Marine Monitoring AB.
    Magnusson, Marina
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Companies, Marine Monitoring AB.
    Utvärdering av ny övervakning av främmande arter: Metodjämförelse mellan traditionell och DNA-baserad identifiering2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Global shipping carries over 90 percent of world goods and is expected to play an increasing role in the future in terms of global trade. Shipping affects the environment in various ways, one being the transfer of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens with ballast water releases. The significance of ballast water as a vector for foreign and invasive alien species (IAS) eventually led to the adoption of the UN International Convention for the Control and Management of Ship’s Ballast Water and Sediments. The Convention entered into force in September 2017, and states that the spread of harmful (invasive) species with ships' ballast water and sediment shall be prevented and ultimately eliminated. It is the responsibility of ships in international traffic to install facilities for the management of ballast water, although it is possible to apply for exemption subject to certain conditions. In order to apply for exemption, listed IAS which are likely to be spread by ship transport must be investigated in current ports. Port surveys are also important for management purposes.   

    In this report, traditional methods are compared with novel approaches of conducting fauna surveys in port areas. To this end, plankton and benthos samples were taken and then manually sorted to identify all specimens to species or higher taxonomic level (genus, family, phylum). At the same time, parallel samples were processed with a genomic approach where DNA was extracted from bulk samples without previous sorting, and species were identified based on DNA metabarcoding. DNA was sequenced using next generation sequencing techniques (Illumina), and the resulting sequences were matched against taxonomic reference sequences from public archives and target species databases.  The traditional method found 212 taxa overall, of which 131 taxa (62 percent) could be identified to species level. Four of these are listed as nonindigenous/invasive alien, and two of them are on the target species list of the HELCOM/OSPAR area: Mnemiopsis leydi och Crassostrea gigas. The DNA method recognized 153 taxa, of which 119 taxa (77 percent) could be determined to species level. This approach found five invasive alien species, all on the target species list : Acartia tonsa, Crassostrea gigas, Crepidula fornicata, Amphibalanus improvisus and Caprella mutica. Mnemiopsis leydi had been excluded from the plankton samples before they were put into ethanol and prepared for DNA extractions. Of the EU list of IAS where only one marine species exists, no match was made.  More species were identified from the settling plates (75 percent) and the benthic samples (82 percent), using the manual method compared to the DNAbased (56 percent and 64 percent respectively). However, when it comes to the zooplankton, the DNA based method identified more species (66 percent), compared to the traditional approach (9 percent) and found four invasive alien species, compared to none in the case of the traditional method. The DNA based method found three invasive species in the benthic sample, compared to none analysed by the traditional method.   A conclusion of the comparison between the two methods is that the traditional method found, and identified, more species in general. However, the DNA based method found (i) more invasive alien species (higher specificity); (ii) found invasive alien species more often (higher taxonomic sensitivity); and (iii) could detect invasive alien species in the plankton samples (early warning).

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  • 28.
    Svedäng, Henrik
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Government Agencies, National Board of Fisheries.
    Mörtens (Rutilus rutilus) livshistoria: En litteratursammanställning1993Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    ♦ Mört är vanligt förekommande i sötvattens- och brackvattensmiljöer i Sverige. Den är en varmvattenart med relativt låg tillväxtpotential.

    ♦ Mört är beroende av djurplankton under tidiga livsstadier. Äldre fiskar har ett brett födovalsspektrum bestående av framförallt av bottendjur och växtdelar. En viktig anpassning är de kraftiga svalgbenständer, med vilka både musslor och växter kan krossas.

    ♦ Migration har konstaterats i samband med lek. Relativt långa säsongsmässiga förflyttningar förekommer också som har samband med årstidsmässiga variationer i födotillgång och temperatur.

    ♦ Leken sker på våren, vanligtvis i rik vegetation på 1—3 dm djup, där rommen klibbar fast på olika föremål. Parbildning förekommer inte, utan honan jagas ofta in i vegetationen, där hon befruktas av flerahanar.

    ♦ Könsmognadsålder och tillväxthastighet är i en jämförelse mellan olika populationer positivt korrelerade; snabb tillväxt medför att fisken kan bli könsmogen redan som ett- eller tvååring, medan långsam tillväxt kan försena könsmognaden ända upp till 6—8 års ålder. Mörtens reproduktionsstrategi har tolkats som en anpassning till artens demografi, där variation i överlevnad under de tidiga livsstadiema mellan olika år är den viktigaste parametern. Emellertid har en så viktig parameter som överlevnaden efter könsmognad visat sig vara negativt korrelerad till tillväxthastigheten. Som en följd av förhållandet mellan överlevnad och tillväxthastighet kommer mörten i miljöer som gynnarsnabb tillväxt, att reproducera sig så fort som möjligt. I de fall när tillväxthastigheten är måttlig, kommer den att i medeltal reproducera sig vid högre ålder och under flera år i följd. Det är alltså oklart om skillnader i mörtens livshistoria i olika miljöer skall betraktas som anpassningar till varje populations specifika livsmiljö, eller är resultatet av en fysiologisk respons som uppstår genom variation i tillväxthastighet, vare sig denna ökar fiskens reproduktionsframgång eller inte.

    ♦ Årsklassens storlek bestäms under de tidiga livsstadiema. Syrgasförhållanden, temperatur, vattenståndsregleringar och predation är viktiga populationsreglerande faktorer. Eutrofiering av kust- eller inlandsvatten gynnar i allmänhet mört. Den ökade produktiviteten i ett eutrofierat sjöekosystem medför en förbättring av mörtynglens livsvillkor, samtidigt som födoresursema paradoxalt kan minska för större fiskar. Själva storleken på vattensystemet är också betydelsefull. Födobegränsning och åtföljande biotiska interaktioner inom och mellan arter utvecklas lättare i ett litet slutet system, medan abiotiska faktorers inverkan på rekrytering och produktion är av större betydelse i öppna system som stora sjöar och kustområden.

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  • 29.
    Svedäng, Henrik
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Government Agencies, National Board of Fisheries.
    Reproduktionsstrategier1993Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fiskar har en enastående variation i livshistoriska karaktärer som livslängd, tillväxt, ålder och storlek vid könsmognad, fekunditet och romstorlek. Denna variation finns inte bara mellan olika arter utan också mellan och inom populationer av samma art. Den orsakas dels av genetiska skillnader, dels av miljömässiga faktorer. En reproduktionsstrategi är en tolkning eller en modell av hur en individ optimerar sina tillgängliga resurser så att reproduktionsframgången blir så stor som möjligt. Enligt denna modell bestäms reproduktionsframgången av tre faktorer; överlevnad, fekunditet, och generationstidens längd. Teoretiska överväganden, som visar på en optimal relation mellan tillväxt och storlek och ålder vid könsmognad, bygger oftast på antaganden om en stabil överlevnaden mellan olika år. Kritik har dock riktats mot detta synsätt, eftersom överlevnaden kan fluktuera kraftigt. Det är heller inte troligt att en strategisframgång enbart beror på de optimeringar som kan göras utifrån miljöns begränsningar utan även på alternativa strategiers frekvenser inom en lokal population. Kritik har dessutom riktats mot livshistorisk teori för dess bristande hänsyn till fysiologiska och genetiska begränsningar, dvs att organismerna saknar förmåga att optimera sina resurser i enlighet med teorins förutsägelser. Trots sina brister kan dock reproduktionsstrategiska modeller vara användbara, vilket diskuteras slutligen i några exempel.

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  • 30.
    Svedäng, Henrik
    et al.
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Government Agencies, National Board of Fisheries.
    Karås, Peter
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Government Agencies, National Board of Fisheries.
    Utsläpp av kylvatten: en möjlighet att förbättra fiskrekrytering?1993Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Discharges of cooling water from a nuclear power plant, situated in the SW partof the Gulf of Bothnia, have been used in an attempt to improve recruitment of commercially interesting warm water species. In the experiment about 70 m3/s ofcooling water, normally elevated about 10 °C above ambient, was discharged into shallow water areas from April until October in two consecutive years. This resulted in the warming up of an area of 6—8 km3. There was, however, a sharp temperature decrease from the point of discharge and the temperature increase was much reduced when reaching the actual nursery areas of the warm waterspecies. The highest increase was 4—5 °C during spring and late summer. In general it was a few degrees lower and during June, July up to the middle of August there was no increase at all in these areas. In fact, water temperature was even lower as compared to unaffected areas due to a combination of small temperature increases within the power plant and relatively low temperatures within the intake area.

    Effects on the turbidity of the water in the affected area could not be documented. Increased algal coverage was shown within some hundred meters from the point of discharge. The length of the growth season was, however, increased for the vegetation submerged at greater distances.

    Perch {Perea fluviatilis) was studied most thoroughly concerning growth and survival during the first year of life. Earlier spawning resulted in a peak of abundance of newly hatched larvae about a month earlier than in unaffected areas. This event should have increased first year growth, but due to some temperature deficiencies during the summer this growth effect was reduced. The overall effect of the discharges on the growth was positive, however, since temperatures were relatively high in late summer and autumn. Thus, 0+ perch was about double the size at the end of the growth season in the most affected areas in comparison with unaffected areas. The growth of 0+ roach [Rutilus rutilus) was affected in a similar manner. Calculations of consumption in perch using abioenergetics model, demonstrated that feeding was close to maximal in affected as well as in unaffected areas.

    During the first experimental year, which also was a naturally very warm year, the highest abundance of 0+ perch for a period of 14 years was documented within the experimental area. The next year was, on the contrary, extremely cold and should, based on earlier experiences in the area, have resulted in very low abundances within the affected area. However, normal abundances appeared.The abundances of 0+ cyprinids did not increase in a similar manner. It is not possible, however, to draw a final conclusion concerning these observations until these year-classes are recruited to the adult stock.

    The effects of the coolingwater discharges on the adult stocks were small. Herring {Clupea harengus) was most greatly affected, since it was observed to spawn within the cooling water plume. Also, there were some indications that this species avoided the affected areas during the warmer parts of the year to a larger extent than normal.

    To maximize the effects of the cooling water discharges on recruitment of warmwater species, the cooling water should be discharged closer to the actual recruitment areas than was possible in this experiment. To reduce drifting of pelagic fish larvae, the velocity of the cooling water should also be adjusted to thel ocal conditions.

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  • 31.
    Thoresson, Gunnar
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Government Agencies, National Board of Fisheries.
    GUIDELINES FOR COASTAL MONITORING: Fishery biology1993Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fish are studied to an increasing extent in environmental monitoring around the coasts of Sweden, and the coastal fishery has a good potential for further development. Standardized techniques for long-term monitoring and prognosis of the size and productive capacity of fish populations, as well as continuous control of their health in a wide context thus are required. This report describes a basic programme and guide-lines designed to study coastal fish. The system also constitutes a basis for an integration of physiological health studies and measurements of contaminant levels with basic ecological data. Both population monitoring and collection of fish for analytical purposes are done by means of fishing using established methods — gill nets and fyke nets. A detailed description of the principles behind the system is given by Neuman (1985).

    The monitoring and prognosis system is designed for coastal species. Such species mainly occur close to the bottom; the dominating pelagic fishes are mainly found further out to sea. In order to be able to link the reactions of the fish to the environmental situation in a specific study area, priority is given to stationary species, particularly with regard to measurements on the individual level. In addition, the system concentrates on relatively large species because they are often of commercial interest, they allow individual chemical and biological analyses and are easy to catch with established methods.

    The species monitored, i.e., demersal (bottom-living) fairly large fish, can be grouped into two communities on the coasts of the Baltic: littoral, mainly stationary warm-water species, and less stationary cold-water species living in deeper water.The most common fish in the former group are perch, roach and ruffe, whereas the latter mainly consists of flounder, cod, sculpins, viviparous blenny, and whitefish. At the Swedish West Coast, cold-water species such as cod, flatfish, viviparousblenny and sea scorpion dominate also in shallow water; eel is the only major representative of warm-water fishes.

    The design of the test fishing, as in all other monitoring of inter-year variations in biological processes, places strict demands on statistical planning. The methods described here have been developed through many years of pilot studies and statistical tests. By means of stratification as regards choice of species and sizegroups, depth intervals, stations and times of year, it has been possible to create statistically satisfactory programmes at reasonable expense. Consequently, this programme has a design that definitely separates it from inventory studies. However, such geographical mappings of, e.g., species distribution should be included in the preliminary studies that should be made prior to each individual monitoring programme.

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  • 32.
    Thoresson, Gunnar
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Government Agencies, National Board of Fisheries.
    HANDBOK FÖR KUSTUNDERSÖKNINGAR: Metodbeskrivningar i fiskeribiologi1992Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fisk används i ökande utsträckning i miljöövervakningen utmed våra kuster, och medvetenheten om kustfiskets utvecklingsmöjligheter tilltar. Denna situation ställer krav på långsiktig övervakning av och prognoser över fiskbeståndens storlek och produktionskapacitet samt en fortlöpande kontroll av deras hälsotillstånd i vid mening. Föreliggande arbete beskriver ett basprogram utformat för att möta dessa krav. Systemet utgör också en bas för specialundersökningar av t ex fysiologi och miljögiftshalter. Såväl beståndsövervakningen som insamlingen av fisk för provtagning sker genom fiske med etablerad metodik—-nät och ryssjor. För en utförlig presentation av principerna bakom systemet hänvisas till Neuman (1985).

    Övervaknings- och prognossystemet är utformat för kustbundna arter. Dessa uppträder huvudsakligen nära botten; de dominerande pelagiska fiskarna uppehåller sig främst längre ut till havs. För att det skall vara möjligt att koppla fiskens reaktioner till miljösituationen i undersökningsområdet, prioriteras stationära arter; i synnerhet gäller detta mätningar på individnivå. Vidare är systemet inriktat på relativt storvuxna arter, eftersom de ofta är av intresse för fisket, medger individuell kemisk och biologisk analys och är lätta att fånga med etablerad metodik.

    De arter som övervakas, dvs bottenlevande, någorlunda storvuxna fiskarter, kan vid Östersjöns kuster grupperas i två samhällen: littorala, i huvudsak stationära varmvattenarter samt kallvattenarter, som lever djupare och är mindre stationära. I den förra gruppen är abborre, mört och gers vanligast, medan den senare främst består av skrubbskädda, torsk, simpor, tånglake och sik. Vid svenska västkusten dominerar kallvattenarter som torsk, plattfiskar, tånglake och rötsimpa även på grunt vatten; ål utgör här det enda starka inslaget av varmvattenfisk.

    Uppläggningen av provfiskena, liksom all annan kontroll av mellanårsvariationer i biologiska förlopp, stälier hårda krav på statistisk planering. De metoder som här beskrivs har utvecklats efter mångåriga förstudier och statistiska prövningar. Genom stratifiering vad gäller val av art- och storleksgrupper, djupintervall, stationer och årstid har det varit möjligt att till rimliga kostnader skapa statistiskt tillfredsställande program. En klar skiljelinje har alltså dragits mot inventering; en sådan bredare insats bör dock ingå i den förundersökning som måste ligga till grund för varje enskilt övervakningsprogram.

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  • 33.
    Thoresson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Government Agencies, National Board of Fisheries.
    Sandström, Olof
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Government Agencies, National Board of Fisheries.
    Resurs- och miljööversikt: kustfisk och fiske1997Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Kustlaboratoriets verksamhet ingår att följa bestånden av de arter som har störst betydelse för yrkes- och fritidsfisket efter kusterna. Laboratoriet bedriver också undersökningar för att mäta påverkan på fisk av olika former av miljö­störningar, såväl storskalig påverkan som mer lokala effekter i t ex industrirecipienterna. Dessa båda verksamheter är till stor del sammankopplade, då data för resursövervakningen till stor del hämtas från miljökontrollen, särskilt de delar som löper i referensområden.

    I resursöversikten behandlas de arter och havsområden som prioriteras av Fiskeriverkets Resurs- och Miljöavdelning. Prioriteringen bygger på kunskap om vilka arter som är mest intressanta för fisket och i vilka regioner dessa har sin huvudsakliga utbredning. Resursövervakningen bygger på såväl egna data som loggboksstatistik. Det bör dock noteras att loggboksstatistiken främst belyser det yrkesmässiga fiskets fördelning i kustzonen. Värdet för kvantitativa uppskattningar är dock lägre då det endast redovisar en mindre del av det totala fisket. Miljörapporten sammanfattar de effekter på kustfiskbestånden och fiskens kvalitet som livsmedel som kan kopplas till den storskaliga miljögifts- och närsaltsbelastningen samt den påverkan av lokala utsläpp och byggande i vatten som Kustlaboratoriet undersökt.

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  • 34.
    Vinterstare, Jerker
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Universities, Lund University.
    Åtgärdsprogram för mal: (Siluris glanis)2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This action program aims to improve the status of the European catfish (Siluris glanis) in Sweden. It is an indicative, but not legally binding, action program.   

    The European catfish migrated to Swedish lake and river environments during the Ancylus lake period, an era when the temperature was higher than today. The species is the largest freshwater fish in Sweden with a record measuring 3.6 meters standard length and an estimated weight of about 180 kg. It is considered to be nocturnal and an opportunistic predator eating both fish and other freshwater organisms, such as amphibians, birds, crayfishes, insects, worms and molluscs. The species require relatively high water temperatures to spawn, which means it is not reproducing every year in Swedish waters.   

    The European catfish is listed as Vulnerable (VU) on the Swedish red list. Four natural populations exist, all located in the southeast of Sweden, in the water systems Nyköpingsån (lake Båven), Emån, the upper part of Helge å and the lower part of Helge å. Additional records are known from a few other lakes, all results of illegal releases.   

    The main reason for the decline is destruction of suitable habitat, such as large lowland rivers with a natural river environment. These habitats have been severely affected by human interference from the 19th century onwards, such as drainage of wetlands, water regulation, diversion of water, and physical impact on shore and bottom habitats.   

    Genetic studies show that the populations in Sweden are genetically unique, but have low genetic variation indicating that the number of spawning individual is low, possibly due to lack of suitable spawning habitats.  The European catfish is protected from fishing in Sweden. Other important measures is to make suitable habitats available by review and adjustments of legislation and water regulations in force. Also to improve the biotopes, for example promote the access to suitable spawning habitats and experiments with artificial nests. In addition, there is a great focus on an improved knowledge base and dissemination of information.  

    The cost for the conservation measures, to be funded from Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management allocation for action plans is estimated at 580 000 € during the period 2017-2021.

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  • 35.
    Wrange, Anna-Lisa
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Universities, University of Gothenburg, GU, Department of Biological & Environmental Sciences.
    Havstulpanprojektet på västkusten 2012: En studie om påväxtdynamik i norra Bohuslän under båtsäsongen 20122013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2001, Skärgårdsstiftelsen in Stockholm has been running a monitoring project along the Swedish east coast on barnacle fouling on boats with the aim to reduce the use of toxic antifouling paints, and promote more environmentally friendly methods such as mechanical cleaning. The project involves making observations of barnacle settlement available to the public, so that boats can be taken out of the water in time and cleaned before the barnacles attach too firmly. This system has worked well along parts of the Baltic Sea coast, since barnacles only settle a few times per year. However, on the Swedish west coast the fouling community is generally more complex with higher species diversity and more intense fouling throughout the season.   The aim of this study was to document the intensity and dynamics of the fouling community on the Swedish west coast and evaluate the potential for increased use of mechanical cleaning of boat hauls, as an alternative to using antifouling paints. As expected the species diversity and intensity was considerably higher than what is normally observed along the Baltic Sea coast. The fouling community was dominated by barnacles, tunicates and mussels, but also bryozoans, hydroids and filamentous algae were observed. Species composition and intensity of fouling differed considerably between closely located sites, especially after four weeks. Barnacles dominated the community at all sites during the first two weeks after panels had been placed in the sea. Newly settled barnacles were observed throughout the whole boat season, although intensities were highest in June-August. The fouling on the panels corresponded relatively well with what was observed on boat hauls, especially during the first weeks. Based on these results, mechanical cleaning of boat hauls is recommended every two to four weeks, to avoid difficulties in removing fouling organisms using simple mechanical techniques. This project was a collaboration between Skärgårdsstiftelsen in Stockholm and the University of Gothenburg, with funding from the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management.

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  • 36.
    Konnektivitet i kustvatten: En kunskapssammanställning om organismers rörelser i kustzonen2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Begreppet konnektivitet beskriver möjligheten att uppfylla fungerande ekosystems behov av spridning och fria passager för djur, växter, sediment, organiskt material och näringsämnen. I denna rapport ligger fokus på konnektivitet för djur och växter, så kallad biologisk konnektivitet.

    Ursprunget till denna rapport är behovet av att ta fram kunskapsunderlag för att utveckla bedömningsgrunder inom vattenförvaltningen med fokus på kvalitetsfaktorn Konnektivitet i kustvatten. Rapportens syfte är att öka förståelsen för konnektivitet i kustnära miljöer och hur den påverkas av olika verksamheter. Syftet är också att belysa hur ett förändrat klimat kan påverka denna viktiga biologiska funktion.

    Det finns flera exempel på hur störningar kan få konsekvenser för näringsvävar i kusten genom att konnektiviteten störs mellan kust och hav, längs med kusten eller mellan kustområden och inlandsvatten. Idag finns ett mycket stort antal barriärer i kustområden och många vattendrag har vandringshinder redan i de nedre delarna av avrinningsområdet. Längs kusten kan strömmar påverkas som en effekt av exploatering, vilket påverkar de organismer som behöver sprida sig passivt med denna transportmekanism. Med förändrat klimat kan också förutsättningar för konnektivitet förändras och detta är något som behöver beaktas i åtgärdsarbetet.

    Det finns många organismgrupper i kusten som har behov av konnektivitet för att fullgöra sin livscykel. Fröer och larver har behov av att sprida sig passivt med strömmar medan exempelvis fisk och vissa arter av bottenfauna kan förflytta sig utan hjälp av andra processer. Konnektivitet är en viktig biologisk funktion som berör flera organismgrupper. Det finns emellertid olika typer av biologisk konnektivitet och olika organismgrupper har olika processer för att nå nya geografiska områden.

    Vid en bedömning av tillståndet för fisk i inlandsvatten bör även bristande konnektivitet i kusten för de fiskarter som vandrar mellan havet och upp i avrinningsområdena beaktas. Eftersom fisk utgör en viktig predator för bottenfauna, men även är konsument av djurplankton i kusten, behöver konnektiviteten för vandrande fiskar beaktas i bedömningen av kustekosystem.

    Kunskapssammanställningen pekar på att det finns kunskapsluckor inom biologisk konnektivitet och att mer kunskap behövs om hur fysisk påverkan kan leda till bristande konnektivitet och förändrad populationsdynamik. För det fortsatta arbetet behöver fler faktorer identifieras som skulle kunna fungera som stöd för att bedöma biologisk konnektivitet i kustområden.

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  • 37.
    Kortversion av rapporten Marin strategi för Nordsjön och Östersjön: Åtgärdsprogram för havsmiljön 2022-2027 enligt havsmiljöförordningen2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten har tagit fram ett uppdaterat åtgärdsprogram för havsmiljön (ÅPH) för Nordsjön och Östersjön. Detta åtgärdsprogram är det andra som beslutats enligt havsmiljöförordningen, som är det svenska genomförandet av EU:s havsmiljödirektiv, och är en uppdatering och komplettering av det första åtgärdsprogrammet som beslutades 2015.

    Åtgärdsprogrammet för havsmiljön anger vilka åtgärder som behövs för att miljökvalitetsnormerna för havet ska kunna följas, för att god havsmiljö ska uppnås på sikt.

    Programmet ska genomföras under perioden 2022-2027 och innehåller 14 nya åtgärder men omfattar även åtgärder från det första åtgärdsprogrammet: vissa har modifierats medan andra fortsätter oförändrade.

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  • 38.
    Provfiske väster om Måseskär i anslutning till vrak med dumpade kemiska stridsmedel2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Marine Monitoring AB har under 2021 på uppdrag av Havs- och vattenmyndigheten undersökt biota och sediment i anslutning till dumpningsområdet av kemiska stridsmedel väster om ön Måseskär. Tidigare undersökningar i dumpningsområdet har visat på spår av kemiska stridsmedel i sedimentet och i biota. Vid de tidigare undersökningarna av biota har nedbrytningsprodukter av Clark I och/eller Clark II detekterats i arterna nordhavsräka, havskräfta, rödtunga samt pirål. Den aktuella undersökningen kompletterar tidigare provfisken med fokus på nya vrak, två liggandes längst väster ut och tre i de yttre sydöstra delarna av vrakområdet, samt ytterligare ansträngning i form av analys av sedimentprover. Kemiska analyser av fångade organismer och sedimentprover utfördes av the Finnish Institute for Verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention, University of Helsinki (VERIFIN).

    Målarterna som undersöks är utvalda på grund av deras kommersiella betydelse och ekologiska levnadssätt. Precis som vid tidigare undersökningar av biota analyseras vävnad från målarterna nordhavsräka, havskräfta och pirål. Provfisket utfördes med passiva redskap så som burar och fällor. Sediment provtogs med huggare.

    Resultatet från de kemiska analyserna av målarterna visade på spår av kemiska stridsmedel i form av nedbrytningsprodukter från trifenylarsin och Clark I och/eller Clark II. Sju analyserade prover innehöll nedbrytningsprodukt av trifenylarsin (0,06-

    1,67 ng/g) och bland de sju proverna detekterades även nedbrytningsprodukt av Clark I och/eller Clark II i två prover (0,20-0,29 ng/g). Även resultatet från de kemiska analyserna av sedimentprover visade på detektion av trifenylarsin i ett av proverna (ej kvantifierbart) och av nedbrytningsprodukt av trifenylarsin i tre av proverna (0,401,23 μg/kg). Totalt detekterades spår av kemiska stridsmedel vid 37 % av biotaproverna och vid 27 % av sedimentproverna.  

    Efter de totalt fyra undersökningarna av kemiska stridsmedel i biota utförda av Marine Monitoring inom olika delar av dumpningsområdet har majoriteten av området undersökts, och visar att samtliga delar är mer eller mindre påverkade. Fyra av de fem undersökta vraken visade också på spår av kemiska stridsmedel i sedimentet. De aktuella kemiska stridsmedlen har låg spridningsgrad varför flera källor anses finns inom dumpningsområdet, trots att det finns en hög aktivitet av bottentrålning inom området som kan bidra till spridning av kontaminerat sediment.

    Koncentrationerna av kemiska stridsmedel i biota och sedimentproverna pekar på högst påverkan inom de västligaste delarna av dumpningsområdet, men även inre delar visar på kvantifierbara halter. Detektion av kemiska stridsmedel i vävnadsprover från arter i flera olika steg av näringsväven tyder på stor spridning även vid själva källorna.

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  • 39.
    Sveriges åtagande i Baltic Sea Action Plan: Förslag till nationell åtgärdsplan2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Östersjöländerna har beslutat om en gemensam plan, Baltic Sea Action Plan, (BSAP) för att förbättra Östersjönsmiljö. Alla Östersjöländer ska ta fram nationella åtgärdsplaner till år 2010. Slutrapporten innehåller förslag på hur Sverige ska klara av sina åtaganden inom BSAP och innefattar 150 aktiviteter inom fyra huvudområden: övergödning, farliga ämnen, biologisk mångfald och maritima frågor. Det övergripande målet enligt Baltic Sea Action Plan är ett Östersjön på 1950-talsnivå avseende övergödning. Rapporten innehåller en översiktlig samhällsekonomisk konsekvensanalys. Detaljerade kostnadsanalyser finns i Naturvårdsverkets rapport 5984.

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  • 40.
    Swedish update of the Programme of Measures according to the Marine Strategy Framework Directive: Summary in English of the Swedish report Marin strategi för Nordsjön och Östersjön, åtgärdsprogram för havsmiljön i Nordsjön och Östersjön 2022-2027 enligt havsmiljöförordningen2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management has developed an updated Programme of Measures for the marine environment for the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. This Programme of Measures is the second adopted under the Swedish Marine Environment Ordinance, which is the Swedish implementation of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive, and is an update and complement of the first Programme of Measures decided in 2015. The Programme of Measures sets out the measures needed to comply with the Swedish environmental quality standards for the sea. The overall objective is to maintain or achieve good environmental status.

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  • 41.
    Åtgärdsprogram för tumlare: Phocoena phocoena (Linnaeus, 1758)2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) is one of the smallest toothed whale species. It is found in cold and temperate waters of the Northern Hemisphere. Within Swedish waters there are three distinct populations of harbour porpoises: the North Sea population, the Belt Sea population, and Baltic Proper population. 

    In the 2020 Red List of Swedish Species the Baltic Proper population of harbour porpoises is listed as Critically Endangered (CR). The most recent population abundance estimate (completed between 2011-2013) indicates that only 497 animals remain (95% confidence interval, 80–1091 animals). Since a major part of the population resides within the Swedish Exclusive Economic Zone, Sweden has a special responsibility for the conservation of this population. The Red List status for the species as a whole is Least Concern (LC). 

    As the only cetacean species living year-round in Swedish waters the harbour porpoise has a significant symbolic value in Sweden. It is a flagship species. 

    The long-term (prior to 2040) target for the harbour porpoise action plan is to ensure that the conditions in Swedish waters enable all three populations to reach 80% of their biocapacity over the next 100 years. For the time being this means that human-induced mortality should not exceed mortality thresholds established by Helcom/Ospar for the North Sea and Belt Sea populations. For the Baltic Proper population human induced mortality should be zero until favourable conservation status is reached. Once favourable conservation status has been reached human induced mortality must not exceed the population’s mortality threshold. 

    There are many threats towards the conservation of harbour porpoises, with bycatch judged to have the strongest impact on the populations. The largest risk for bycatch comes from static net fisheries with larger mesh sizes, for example nets set for cod (Gadus morhua), flatfish and lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus). Harbour porpoise’s sensitive hearing leads to behavioural changes in response to very low levels of underwater noise pollution. High-noise activities such as pile-driving have been shown to affect abundance within a 20 km radius. 

    Pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known to cause decreased fertility and immune responses in the harbour porpoise. However, knowledge on the current health status in Swedish waters is inadequate. This action plan recommends a number of measures to reduce risk for bycatch, for example the creation of areas where the use of fishing gear is reduced to pots, traps, or longlines, or an increased use of pingers in other areas. Furthermore, key areas of importance for the harbour porpoise should be formally protected. Effects of underwater noise pollution can be reduced through the introduction of national threshold values for noise levels and development of guidance documents. The action plan contains a number of activities to inform the public and relevant stakeholders on harbour porpoise conservation issues and threats. Further research is recommended to increase knowledge on harbour porpoise ecology and the influence of anthropogenic activities. Measures to reduce the pollution load of the marine environment fall outside the framework of this action plan. 

    Swedish action plans for threatened species or habitats are not legally binding but serve as guidelines to achieve defined conservation goals. The present action plan for the harbour porpoise is valid for the period 2021-2025.

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  • 42.
    Åtgärdsprogram för vimma och id: Vimba vimba (Linnaeus,1758), Leuciscus idus (Linnaeus,1758)2023Report (Other academic)
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