Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management

Change search
Refine search result
12 1 - 50 of 61
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Andersson, Tomas
    Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management.
    Havsplanering: dialog med våra grannländer2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I juli 2014 beslutade EU om ett ramdirektiv för havsplanering (2014/89/EU). Detta innebär att alla medlemsstater ska ha utarbetat havsplaner senast 2021. Ett av syftena med direktivet är att främja sammarbete mellan medlemsstaterna. Sverige har som enda land havsgräns till samtliga länder runt Östersjön, samt Norge. De svenska havsplanerna kommer därför att behöva relateras till minst nio olika planer. Som en förberedelse för införandet av havsplanering i Sverige anordnade HaV, i september 2013, ett möte i Visby med tjänstemän från grannländer plus Åland för att diskutera havsplanering.   Baserat på resultatet från Visbymötet beslöt HaV att genomföra ett besök hos samtliga grannländer under 2014.   Resultatet av besöken är att HaV har lagt grunden till ett bra samarbetsklimat mellan ansvariga institutioner och myndigheter i respektive land och HaV. Ett förhållande som kommer att vara av stor betydelse i det fortsatta arbetet med att koordinera de svenska planerna med grannländernas planer.  HaV har också fördjupat och breddat sina kontaktytor och ökat förståelsen för processerna kopplade till havsplanering i respektive land. Man kan konstatera att genomförandet av havsplanering i de flesta länderna är väl förberett och att startpunkten för länders arbete ligger inom en snar framtid för de flesta. Besöken har också tydligt visat på att samverkan behövs. Detta bekräftas bl.a. av att det vid flera av möten framkommit att vi behöver träffas på nytt, att det behövs löpande informations- och arbetsmöten mellan tjänstemän som har ansvar för planeringsfrågor om en mellanstatlig koordinering ska komma till stånd samt att det finns en rad mellanstatliga frågor att hantera, frågor som kan vara bilaterala eller multilaterala.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 2.
    Astrauskas, Andrius
    et al.
    Institute of Ecology, Vilnius, Lithuania.
    Jovaisa, Rolandas
    Institute of Ecology, Vilnius, Lithuania.
    Sandström, Olof
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Government Agencies, National Board of Fisheries.
    Distribution and abundance of young pelagic fish: monitored by hydroacoustics in two coastal areas in the SW Bothnian Sea1994Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution of young pelagic fish in autumn was studied by hydroacoustic techniques in two coastal areas in the SW Bothnian Sea, one exposed to cooling water from a nuclear power plant and the second a reference area free from local disturbance. Generally, herring young-of-the-year dominated among pelagic fish and often constituted over 80% of the total numbers of fish counted. Young herring were concentrated to certain parts of the studied archipelagos, predominantly to the more shallow waters and to the outer parts of the small inlets commonly occurring in these coastal areas. When comparing the results of subsequent visits in the different study areas, it was evident that the estimated densities often varied markedly between days, although the distributionpatterns did not change. This was interpreted as an effect of migrations in and out of waters too shallow to be monitored by echosounder techniques. In September young herring evidently still depends upon an access to sheltered and very shallow habitats. Abundances of herring fry were higher in the cooling water exposed area compared to the reference, supporting earlier observations on positive temperature effects on fishrecruitment at this nuclear power plant.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 3. Dahlgren, Kristin
    Baskartering och verifiering av blottade ler- och sandbottnar (1140) i Västerbottens län2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to produce potential distribution maps of the Natura 2000- habitat Mudflats and sandflats not covered by seawater at low tide (habitat code 1140), by using aerial photographs (orthophotos) and field authentication. Through field authentication, a calibration of the method was planned. The colours of the orthophotos were to be connected to the correct habitat.   Different areas with different conditions were visited in field. This included areas with and without the influence of freshwater, areas from the two districts Bothnian Bay and Bothnian Sea and areas from north to south in the county.   No differences in colour of the photos could be detected connected to the influence of freshwater. Generally we thought that the calibration method worked really well, with the exception for the northern part of the county, where the water was much darker. This might be due either to the high amount of humic particles coming from land, or the fact that the photos were taken on another time, when the water level was higher than in the southern part.   Our recommendation is therefore to increase the amount of field authentications in the north as well as when the photos have been taken when the water level was high.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 4.
    Fonselius, Stig H.
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Government Agencies, Fiskeristyrelsen.
    Hydrography of the Baltic Deep Basins1962Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The measurements made during the last 50 years and the salinity increase of the Baltic are described. The transport of bottom water between the basins, the salt inflows and the stagnation periods are discussed. The great salt inflow of 1952 and the long stagnation which followed it are described in detail. The conditions during 1960 and the turnover of the water in the Gotland basin in 1961 are discussed and described. The accumulation of nutrient salts in the Gotland basin during the stagnation is described and the conditions are compared to other anoxic basins. The analysis method for hydrogen sulphide is described. The development of the stagnation in the Gotland basin is traced in detail. The speed of the inflow is discussed.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 5.
    Fonselius, Stig H.
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Government Agencies, Fiskeristyrelsen.
    Hydrography Of The Baltic Deep Basins II1967Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 6. Graham, Dr Mark
    et al.
    Lewis, Mrs. Fonda
    Mander, Mr. Myles
    de Winnaar, Mr. Gary
    Whyte, Mr. Chris
    Pano, Mrs. Nathalie
    Socio-Economic Analysis of the Costs of inaction of plastic debris leakage into the uMngeni River catchment in KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa: Final report2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The KZN (KwaZulu Natal) floods of April 2022 highlighted many of the fault lines and fractures over the institutional and physical landscape and which constitutes much of the crisis noted with respect to regional plastic pollution in this environment. There were numerous reports and photographs of tonnes of plastic litter which arrived on the city’s beaches as an aftermath of the floods, and this for all the world to see! (BBC, 2022)

    Over 440 people are reported to have died, with nearly 4,000 homes destroyed and more than 8,000 damaged, mostly in Durban and its surrounding areas. Water and electricity supplies were severely disrupted, along with other municipal infrastructure (roads, bridges, communications etc.).

    The Premier of the province (Sihle Zikalala) is quoted as saying that the magnitude of the damage, will run into billions of rand (Pijoos, 2022), with the eThekwini municipality quoting at least R757million worth of damage (Pijoos, Devastating KwaZulu-Natal floods may have cost eThekwini R757 million, 14). 

    How do these institutional and physical fractures manifest in terms of the plastics issue, and how were they laid bare in this flooding?

    For one, many years of dysfunctionality and poor service delivery within the Durban solid waste environment (and the mismanagement of plastics particularly) allowed much of the plastic waste found in the river and on the beaches to manifest. The various solid waste corruption charges currently under criminal investigation also allude the mismanagement of the solid waste issue at an institutional level and particularly in some of the more rural and township areas that have been most hard hit by the flooding.

    As indicated in this report there is a strong link between poor plastic management at source (within the catchment, on the streets and within urban and semi urban areas) and which then finds its way into the rivers. Often on the way to the lowest point in the catchment, many of the poorly serviced stormwater drains are blocked (often with excessive plastic and other litter) and surcharge. This negates the efficacy of the stormwater infrastructure which then has a more significant storm damage effect in lower reaches of the catchment, and which was patently evident in the latest floods. 

    Additionally, once in the river and now travelling down flooded river systems, this plastic is caught up in other debris blocks and often particularly around culverts, smaller bridges and road causeways. The aperture on these causeways, culverts and bridges are often blocked with this debris, much of it from plastic and other litter and this material causes these bridges to become flooded and the associated infrastructure to fail. This has massive infrastructural repair cost implications. 

    Similarly, failing and surcharging stormwater systems puts pressure on sewerage infrastructure which is often in the same low-lying areas of catchments, and which is then inundated by stormwater. This cascading effect and linkage in turn causes the sewer lines and manholes to surcharge raw sewerage into rivers, estuaries and into the ocean. This has a massive impact on perceptions on water quality and suitability of the beaches for recreation and hence tourism perspectives. As this report highlights, this is one of the major findings, the monetary cost linkages between the value of tourism at the municipal scale (approximately R20billion) and the potential decline in this tourism revenue, stemming principally from a decrease in tourism appeal due to plastic diminishing aesthetics of tourist locations. These other, less obvious linkages between the effects of plastic pollution and other aspects around things like water quality, are not often evident, until this sort of linkages and landscape analysis are made.

    The uMngeni River Catchment is the largest catchment within the eThekwini Municipality and has a significant influence on other systems within the catchment. However, as of 2017, several of the uMngeni River tributaries were in poor/very poor condition, while the mainstem was reportedly in moderate ecological condition. The poor condition of this part of the catchment is partially attributable to the abundance of solid waste entering the river - primarily plastics. Evidence suggests that plastic accumulation in rivers is not only aesthetic in nature, but results in contamination, altering the Physico-chemical properties of the river, causing blockages and stagnating water. Furthermore, plastic blockages in sewer systems can result in overflow and exacerbate faecal pollution in river systems.

    The decline in the health of the uMngeni catchment has dire consequences for ecosystem wellbeing, and the ability for rivers and beaches to provide goods and services. Furthermore, South Africa has committed to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) set out by the United Nations (UN). The resolution of plastic pollution must become a national priority – to safeguard the wellbeing of humans and the environment (the primary engine for the delivery of environmental goods and services) and to uphold the commitment made to the UN and its SDGs.

    The 2019 Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management (SwAM) Source-to-Sea study provided information on the last known state of the study area. The study reviewed aspects relevant to good water management in the KZN province, such as key flows, stakeholders, and governance, along with information on the sources, pathways, and impacts of plastics and possible solutions in the catchment. These key aspects were incorporated into this current study (2022).

    The primary objective of the 2022 SwAM study was to investigate the social and economic impacts associated with plastic waste accumulating in the uMngeni River Catchment and the catchment-derived ecosystems therein (downstream of the Inanda Dam).

    “Social impacts” encapsulates how plastic affects the following:

    • Human health (psychological and physical wellbeing),
    • Recreation,
    • Spiritual values.

    “Economic impacts” focuses on how plastic affects the following:

    • Businesses/ industries revenue generation,
    • Costs associated with clean-up activities in the study area ecosystems.

    Finally, this study considers a range of scenarios and predicts several future outcomes related to the plastic-waste problem, based on the level of response to this issue. Innovative solutions are proposed to tackle the main issues.

    The methodology has at its core:

    • Stakeholder interviews and an analysis of perceptions around plastics in the study area,
    • Modelling of the flow of ecosystems goods and services within the system, and those influenced by plastics, and then
    • Running of a suite of likely scenarios around the plastics issue.

    Online interviews were conducted with key stakeholders previously identified in the 2019 SwAM study. All stakeholders had, importantly, interacted with the affected river/marine system at some level. A Background Information Document (BID), provided prior to the interview, allowed stakeholders to participate in the interviews from an informed perspective.

    The interviews were aimed at developing an understanding of the socio-economic issues associated with plastic pollution. Stakeholders were presented with open-ended question about their perceptions regarding two key issues - the social and economic costs associated with plastic waste, respectively.

    Stakeholders primarily felt that plastic negatively influenced the:

    • cultural (aesthetics of the environment, happiness of the community, tourist appeal, and spiritual practises),
    • provisioning (ability for stakeholders to interact with the aquatic environment in a way that provides, such as fishing and agricultural activities) and
    • supporting (municipal infrastructure negatively impacted by flooding and its attenuation) ecosystem services.

    The stakeholder engagement process highlighted that plastic pollution is part of a larger set of issues associated with the waste management system. Stakeholder perceptions strongly indicated that clearing plastic waste would lead to an improvement in quality of life for stakeholders in the affected area.

    The plastic supply chain, costs of plastic and impacts of plastic on ecosystem services was summarised from literature and unpublished data from the stakeholder engagement. This was aimed at identifying the routes that plastic products followed before ending up in the environment as waste – such as (but not limited to) routes in residential areas, industrial areas, recreational sites, and roads.

    The primary monetary costs associated with plastic pollution were:

    • the clean-up costs of plastic in environment (primarily for beaches and rivers),
    • damage to municipal infrastructure,
    • decline in tourism revenue (which stemmed from a decrease in tourism appeal due to plastic diminishing aesthetics of tourist locations),
    • health and psychological costs,
    • recreation value loss and
    • decline of property value.

    There are numerous, often not obvious, but perverse negative impacts from plastic waste which compound in the environment and affect other aspects of the system. These may be summarized in this context as:

    • Aggravating flooding and water quality problems – plastic becomes entangled with plant material/debris, restricting the apertures on culverts/bridge infrastructure and reducing their flood design capacity, leading to back-flooding, higher flood levels and consequently damage to surrounding infrastructure.
    • Plastic waste ingress into stormwater and sewer systems cause blockages and failures to water and sanitation infrastructure exacerbating the impacts from flooding as well as causing untreated sewage to surcharge and contaminate aquatic ecosystems (rivers, estuaries, and the near shore marine environment).
    • Plastic waste and pathogens – plastic waste may be a carrier for bacteria and shield waterborne pathogens from the natural sterilising effects of the sun’s ultraviolet light and further exacerbate faecal pollution.

    The supply and demand of ecosystem services were simulated for a period of 10 years using the ECOFUTURES modelling system. Geographical and socio-ecological data of the study area was gathered and compiled in Microsoft Excel. This data was also used to determine the relative magnitudes of service levels, land cover supplying the most services, and the greatest levels of services per hectare.

    Several simulation scenarios were prepared and shared with stakeholders and local experts during a workshop held on the 10th of March 2022. Based on insights gained from the workshop, the model was refined into three plausible future scenarios – namely:

    • Maximum (upper boundary of improved benefits, up to 60% increase in service levels),
    • High Road (best plausible solution, between 0-30% increase in service levels) and
    • Low Road scenarios (no changes/improvements are made, 20-80% decline to current service levels).

    The demand for services was determined based on the Human Benefit Index (HBI), a parameter which ranked ecosystem services according to the level of benefit these services generated for people. Results showed a high level of demand and dependency on services that related to Durban’s tourism industry – such as marketing icon, beach recreation and visual amenity. Consequently, due to the large demand and limited supply, these are also the services that are most at risk to negative impacts posing a serious risk to the wellbeing of its users.

    Plastic waste has infiltrated and disrupted key ecological and urban systems, reducing their ability to provide goods and services, and consequently threatening the wellbeing of stakeholders in the study area. However, traditional solutions, such as landfill sites and incinerators, have finite space or tend to generate waste - therefore offering temporary solutions to an inevitable problem, and misaligning with the SDGs.

    As such, innovative solutions are required, and the High Road scenario is proposed for Durban. This scenario proposes several cost-effective, sustainable solutions. The Transformative Riverine Management Programme (TRMP) aims to clear solid waste and alien vegetation from the study area, with an added benefit of promoting community involvement. Passive solid waste traps are also recommended as a simplistic means to capture and remove plastic from the supply chain.

    Various social and institutional interventions, such as EnviroChamps training, school environmental programmes, and river awareness and training, were also recommended. These interventions target the lack of public awareness, with the aim to shift public behaviour to more sustainable, plastic-conscious practises. Finally, solutions such as pyrolysis and gasification units aim to create a plastic value chain. These solutions generate revenue by consuming plastic to produce useful products, such as fuel or gas (which can be used for energy generation) – effectively creating a return on investment that can fund other interventions.

    Resolving the plastic waste issue will require efforts to implement new, sustainable solutions. The current status-quo has been ineffective against the continued accumulation of plastics in the urban and ecological environments and will eventually become completely overwhelmed. This will inevitably lead to urban and ecological services failing, negatively affecting the health of humans and the environment.

    Unavoidable financial costs to businesses and industries relying on these services can be expected, with the most detrimental costs resulting from the degradation of South Africa’s tourism industry - which contributed R125 billion to the South African economy in 2016. However, resolving the plastic waste issue also presents new opportunities for job creation, skills development, and implementation of long-term, sustainable solutions that generate revenue.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 7.
    Hammarlund Kramer, Karin
    et al.
    Ramböll Malmö AB.
    Gottberg, Emil
    Ramböll Malmö AB.
    Inför kommande havsplanering: Lärdomar av genmomförda projekt2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten består av två huvuddelar. Först en genomgång av rapporter och projekt, där ett fåtal väljs ut för sin relevans för praktisk havsplanering och därefter dras lärdomar och slutsatser inför den kommande svenska havsplaneringen.

    Med utgångspunkt i urvalet av projekt utarbetades kriterier för vad som anses vara relevant för att skapa en metod för nationell ekosystembaserad havsplanering. Utifrån den ursprungliga listan på projekt lades även ett fåtal rapporter och en hemsida till granskningen. Genomgången av projekten och rapporterna visade på ett rikt material främst i de förberedande stegen inför skapandet av praktiskt användbara metoder för havsplanering, men också på exempel på pilotprojekt för genomförda havsplaner.

    Metoderna i projekten är oftast projektspecifika. De beskriver inte metoder för faktisk havsplanering, utan snarare hur det går att skapa ett utrymme för att havsplanering ska kunna ske. Exempelvis hur man samlar aktörer och intressenter, hur EU-lagstiftning och nationell lagstiftning harmoniseras eller hur datainsamling sker och organiseras. Metoderna är alltså endast i undantagsfall tydliga nog att direkt appliceras för havsplanering.

    Ur genomgången av projekt och rapporter dras de huvudsakliga slutsatserna:

    • En integrerad (holistisk) ekosystembaserad havsplanering är rätt väg framåt.
    • Forskningsläget och lagrummet är tillräckligt belyst för att påbörja havsplanering i Sverige.
    • Fortsatt sammanställning och uppdatering av GIS-baserade databaser för de svenska territorialvatten och EEZ behövs.
    • Intressent- och aktörsperspektiv är centralt för att lyckas med ekosystembaserad havsplanering.
    • Ekosystembaserad havsplanering är en process och bör upprepas med jämna mellanrum.
    • Med grund i ovanstående kan vissa planeringsmetoder från land appliceras på havet, förutsatt att de är systemanalytiska (holistiska).
    • Kusterna bör inte uteslutas från nationell havsplanering.
    • Arbetet med prissättning på ekosystemtjänster kommer påverka havsplaneringen.
  • 8.
    Hernroth, Lars
    et al.
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Institutes, Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, HMI.
    Ackefors, Hans
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Universities, Stockholm University, SU, Department of Zoology.
    The Zooplankton Of The Baltic Proper: A long-term investigation of the fauna, its biology and ecology1979Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is based on the results from a long-term zooplankton investigation in the Baltic proper in the years 1968—1972. Additional results, obtained by the authors in more recent investigations, have also been used in order to enrich the material with information not obtained in the principal investigation.

    Seven standard plankton stations, covering seven sub-areas of the Baltic proper have been visited on average four to five times per year. All cruises have been made in connection with ordinary hydrographical expeditions which means that all zooplankton samples are accompanied by a complete list of hydrographical data.

    The paper describes the zooplankton fauna of the Baltic proper which comprises about 40 regularly appearing species excluding the micro zooplankton. The main part of the fauna in respect of biomass and production consists, however, of only 10—12 species. The most important were the cnidarian Aurelia aurita. the rotifers Synchaeta spp., the cladocerans Bosmina coregoni maritima and Evadne nordmanni, the copepods Pseudocalanus minutas elongatus, Temora longicornis, Acartia bifilosa, A. longiremis and Centropages hamatus and the larvacean Fritillariaborealis.

    Species of less importance were the larvae of Pleurobrachia pileus, the cladocerans Podon intermedius, P. leuckarti and Pleopsis polyphemodides (the latter is abundant in coastal areas), the copepods Eurytemora sp. and Oithona similis, the larvae of gastropod species, Mytilus edulis, Macoma baltica, Cardium glaucum. C.hauniense and My a arenaria, the chaetognath Sagitta elegans baltica and the larvacean Oikopleura dioica.

    Occaisonal species were the cnidarians Sarsia tubulosa and Cyanea capillata, the rotifers Keratella quadrata quadrata, K. qu. platei, K. cruciformis eichwaldi and K.cochlearis recurvispina, the larvae of Pygospio elegans and Balanus improvisus, the copepods Calanus finmarchicus, Limnocalanus macrurus and Cyclops sp., the mysidaceans Mysis relicta and M. mixta, the amphipod Hyperia galba and the chaetognath Sagitta setosa.

    All samples have been collected by vertical, fractionated hauls with a Nansennet. The mesh size was 0.160 mm in the years 1968—1971 and 0.090 mm in 1972. A correction of all results due to the poor filtering capacity of the Nansen net has been made. The additional results are mainly based on samples from the UNESCOWP 2 net.

    All specimens have been analysed to species and the copepods also to developmental stages. The biomass has been calculated as the sum of all individual volumes.

    The paper also describes the hydrography of the Baltic proper in general and presents the data for temperature, salinity and oxygen in the years 1968—1972.The relationship between the unique hydrography of the Baltic with its stable, brackish water contidions and the planktonfauna is discussed.

    The regulating factors for the vertical and horizontal distribution of the fauna were found to be either temperature or salinity or a combination of these factors.

    The seasonal variation in biomass values showed a rather good correlation with the temperature of the surface layer viz. the lowest biomass values (< 10 g m-2) were usually found in March—April, an increase started in May—June and a maximum (30—60 g m-2) was most often reached in August—September. There were great variations in biomass between the seven stations. The highest mean values (20—25 gm"2) were found in the southern and south-eastern parts of the Baltic proper and the lowest (12—13 gm-2) in the northern and south-western parts. Looking at the biomass values over the whole period of investigation, a remarkable stability has been found. There is no evidence of either increasing or decreasing trend.

    The production of zooplankton has also been estimated. According to our calculations the production amounts to about 20 gC m-2 year-1 (380 g wwt) in the southern Baltic proper and 10 gC m-2 year-1 (190 g wwt) in the northern part.

    The last part of the paper discusses the role of zooplankton in the energy flow of the whole pelagic ecosystem, i.e. from primary phytoplankton production to reproduction and recruitment of pelagic fishes.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 9.
    Hogdin, Susanna
    et al.
    Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management.
    Dahlberg, Ann
    Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management.
    Bättre rådlös än rådvill?: Utvärdering av Naturvårdsverkets allmänna råd 2003:16 om vattenskyddsområden2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten är den centrala myndighet som har vägledningsansvar i arbetet med att inrätta och förvalta vattenskyddsområden.  Att inrätta vattenskyddsområden utgör en viktig del i samhällets arbete med att säkerställa en robust och väl fungerande dricksvattenförsörjning. Havs- och vattenmyndighetens uppgift är att ge stöd och tillsynsvägledning till de myndigheter och andra aktörer som på olika sätt arbetar för att säkra landets dricksvattenförsörjning.   Naturvårdsverkets allmänna råd 2003:16 om vattenskyddsområden utgör en central del i det vägledningsmaterial som finns inom sakområdet. Det är nu drygt 10 år sedan de allmänna råden skrevs och Havs- och vattenmyndigheten har bedömt att det finns behov av att se över rådens aktualitet. Denna analys är ett försök att utvärdera dels om råden utgör ett bra stöd i arbetet med att inrätta vattenskyddsområden med tillhörande föreskrifter och dels om råden kan tillämpas utan att man hamnar i konflikt med annan miljölagstiftning som tillkommit sedan de publicerades år 2003.  Syftet med att publicera utvärderingen i form av en rapport är att myndigheten bedömer att de slutsatser som dras i utvärderingen kan utgöra ett stöd i vattenskyddsarbetet. Många aktörer som verkar inom området efterfrågar mer nationell vägledning fr.a. kopplat till riskvärdering och utformning av vattenskyddsföreskrifter. Även stöttning i det efterföljande tillsyns- och prövningsarbetet baserat på fastställda vattenskyddsföreskrifter efterfrågas. Att ta fram nytt vägledningsmaterial i alla dessa delar är ett omfattande arbete som ställer krav både på sammanställning av kunskapsläget inom vissa områden och på metodutveckling. Havs- och vattenmyndighetens förhoppning är att denna rapport, till dess att ett nytt vägledningsmaterial inom sakområdet kan publiceras, kan bidra till att underlätta vattenskyddsarbetet i vissa delar.   Innehållet i rapporten har sammanställts av Havs- och vattenmyndigheten. Myndigheten vill dock framhålla att många centrala aktörer har bidragit med sin tid och kunskap. Detta har varit en viktig förutsättning för att få en god genomlysning av de olika frågeställningar som tagits upp inom ramen för utvärderingen. Myndigheten vill därför passa på att tacka för det engagemang som alla tillfrågade aktörer visat under arbetets gång.   Tills sist vill myndigheten tydliggöra att Naturvårdsverkets allmänna råd 2003:16 om vattenskyddsområden inte har upphävts utan fortfarande utgör en del av det nationella vägledningsmaterial som finns kopplat till vattenskyddsprocessen.

    Björn Sjöberg den 15 december 2014

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 10.
    Huser, Brian
    et al.
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Universities, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU.
    Malmaeus, Mikael
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Institutes, Swedish Environmental Research Institute, IVL.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Institutes, Swedish Environmental Research Institute, IVL.
    Almstrand, Robert
    Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management.
    Witter, Ernst
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, The County Administrative Boards, The County Administrative Board of Örebro.
    Handbok för åtgärder mot internbelastning2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att uppnå god ekologisk status avseende övergödning i svenska sjöar och kustvatten räcker det i många fall inte att enbart minska belastningen av fosfor från externa källor såsom reningsverk, enskilda avlopp, jordbruk och industrier. Detta beror på att förhöjd internbelastning från sedimenten leder till att halterna av fosfor i vattnet hålls höga. För att minska dessa halter skulle även internbelastningen behöva åtgärdas.

    Åtgärder mot internbelastning är inte en ersättning för åtgärder mot näringsläckage från land till vattenmiljön, eftersom den externa näringsbelastningen måste vara nere på en tillräckligt låg nivå för att en internbelastningsåtgärd ska bli långsiktigt effektiv. Även om en framgångsrik åtgärd mot internbelastning resulterar i att fosforhalterna temporärt minskar, kommer den externa belastningen avgöra övergödningssituationen i vattenförekomsten på lång sikt. Det kan alltså vara nödvändigt att genomföra åtgärder mot både den externa och den interna belastningen till en och samma sjö.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 11. Jerlov, N.G.
    Summer Temperature and Salinity at the Swedish Lightship »Fladen»1953Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 12.
    Johansson, Lars
    Swedmar.
    Coastal Area Management in Sweden: Report on comprehensive coastal planning in the Municipality of Lysekil1995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report has been prepared as a background document for the environmental cooperation around the Baltic Sea. The report focuses on coastal area planning as a process to include physical, biological and human components within a comprehensive management framework for the coastal zone.

    One of the purposes of the report has been to provide demonstration material for use in the Swedish bilateral cooperation with countries in central and eastern Europe.

    It should be underlined that the management and planning strategies must be developed within the framework of the cultural, legal and administrative system of each country. In developing these strategies the comprehensive plan of the Municipality of Lysekil could be seen as an example of the Swedish approach to coastal and marine management at municipal level.

    The report has been prepared by Lars Johansson and Antonia Sanchez Hjortberg, Swedmar, the international consultancy group of the National Board of Lisheries.

    The report has been compiled with the help of the Municipality of Lysekil and the County Administrative Board of Gothenburg and Bohuslän, which have kindly put their planningmaterial and knowledge at disposal. Also the ELEM Architects in Gothenburg, the municipality's planning consultant, has provided valuable assistance.

    This work was carried out at the request of the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency which also has funded the report.

    Swedmar

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 13.
    Karlson, Bengt
    et al.
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Government Agencies, SMHI.
    Mohlin, Malin
    Hu, Yue O. O.
    Andersson, Anders F.
    Miljöövervakning av växtplankton i Kattegatt och Östersjön med rDNA-barcoding och mikroskopi: En jämförelse av molekylärbiologisk metodik och mikroskopi2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Phytoplankton is a fundamental part of the marine food web. Therefore, a national monitoring programme that is focused on the spatial and temporal distribution of phytoplankton in the sea around Sweden is ongoing. The design of surveillance is based on EU directives and intergovernmental conventions. Since some algal blooms can be harmful, there is a special focus on the algae that produces toxins and are potentially harmful in other ways. To carry out the monitoring in a cost effective way, several methods are conducted. This report presents a comparison of the results yielded by microscope-based analysis and rDNA metabarcoding-based analysis. Sampling was done with the help of a Ferrybox system in July 2013 in eighteen locations along a salinity gradient (3 - 24‰) from the Bothnian Bay through the Bothnian Sea and the Baltic Proper to the Kattegat. Results of rDNA metabarcoding showed a much greater biodiversity compared to the result from microscopic counting (Utermöhl method). In total, only 89 organisms were identified by Utermöhl method and the rest were marked as "unidentified flagellates" and "unidentified unicellular organisms". rDNA metabarcoding recorded a total number of almost 2,000 different organisms (excluding heterotrophic bacteria), which means that more than 95% of biodiversity was overlooked by Utermöhl method. Altogether 36 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) were identified as cyanobacteria from the prokaryotes data (16S rDNA) and 1860 different OTUs were found in eukaryotes data (18S rDNA). There were still several organisms missing from the list that microscopic counting yielded. This result suggests that the reference databases for the 16S and 18S rDNA sequences lack some species common in the seas surrounding Sweden. Another reason may be that the 18S rDNA is identical to other species or a genus leading to that the classification is at a higher taxonomic level. Metabarcoding provides different types of data than microscopic counting. The rDNA-based data can offer a high resolution on biodiversity but cannot offer data on cell counts and biomass as microscopic counting does. An alternative molecular biological method is known as quantitative PCR (qPCR) which can determine the amount of DNA from individual organisms so that the cell count of the organisms can be inferred. At present it is only possible to perform qPCR on a small number of organisms in a sample. The authors suggest introducing the rDNA metabarcoding approach of plankton analysis in Swedish marine monitoring programs as a complement to other methods. Besides its advantage regarding the high resolution on biodiversity, rDNA barcoding has a low price per sample when many samples are analysed in one go, and it is not dependent on the taxonomists’ skill on identifying organisms. The plan includes the following elements: 1. Pilot study - rDNA data from a full year should be compared with microscopy and flow cytometry data; 2: Sequencing of the common species in the Baltic that are missing in the reference databases; 3: Standardization of sampling protocols; 4: Standardization of sequencing method; 5: Developing qPCR method targeting selected harmful species; 6: Standardization of sequencing data and comparing it with the available reference databases; 7: Structuring the data management system for the monitoring data and 8: Development of the assessment of the environmental status regarding biodiversity and invasive species based on rDNA data.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 14. Kilnäs, Maria
    Test av olika fjärranalysmetoder och underlag för baskartering av Natura 2000-naturtypen ler- och sandbottnar (1140)2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project was to investigate whether it is possible to identify areas of the Natura 2000-habitat Mudflats and sandflats not covered by seawater at low tide (habitat code 1140), by doing a GIS analysis of aerial photographs (orthophotos).  The report describes how such analyzes can be made and the results of these analyzes.   Various types of images were tested to determine if the results differed depending on the type of images that was used. Eight different areas of the county were visited to determine the extent of 1140 in the field, to get a reference material.   Unfortunately, the distribution of 1140 cannot be determined by using a raster analysis, since the variation in the cut-off value is too large, both within and between areas and regardless of the type of images that are used. Instead traditional aerial photo interpretation is recommended. For good results, orthophotos in color should be used instead of the black and white orthophotos or satellite images.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 15.
    Koczy, F.F.
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Government Agencies, Fiskeristyrelsen.
    Korrektion av djupbestämning med ekolod1956Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den tekniska utvecklingen på fiskets område och den allt större användningen av flyttrålen i våra fiskevatten nödvändiggör en noggrann bestämning av de djup i vilka fiskstimmen uppehåller sig. De hydrografiska förhållandena i våra fiskevatten varierar starkt med årstiderna och på olika fiskeområden och påverkar därigenom noggrannheten av djupbestämningen.Det synes därför påkallat att uppställa tabeller för korrektioner på de av ekoloden erhållna djupangivelserna.

    Inom ett och samma område är variationen med årstiden liten, avvikelserna uppgår maximalt till 2 %. Stora skillnader uppträder däremot mellan djupbestämning i Nordsjön och i Östersjön, då salthalten är resp. 35 %o och5 °/oo. Maximala felet kan här bli 6 % d.v.s. 6 m vid lödning i 100 m djup. Felet är så stort att det måste tas hänsyn till vid trålning.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 16.
    Lindquist, Armin
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Government Agencies, National Board of Fisheries.
    Anteckningar om äldre svenska marina fiskerivetenskapliga undersökningar: Glimtar från 200 år av fiskeriundersökningar1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The annotations cover the time from the middle of the 18th century to the end of the 1970’s. Three periods can be distinguished. -During the first period, from the middle of the 18th century until the beginning of the present century, taxonomic studies (PetrusArtedi) and descriptions of fish species occurring in Swedish waters were the dominating activities. From this period, annual reports are available on fisheries, at that time coastal only, from Norrland in the Baltic Sea to Bohuslän, in the Skagerrack. The first marine environmental issue was the question whether train oil waste was dangerous for the fishery during the herring period in the 18thcentury in Bohuslän. Herring periods, during which herring occurred in enormous quantities in the archipelago of Bohuslän, were considered to be caused, at least partly, by major oceanographic changes. Swedish oceanographers took the initiative for an international coordination of marine research.

    During the second period, from the beginning of this century until 1948, the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, ICES, was established, whereby efforts became internationally coordinated. Numerous biological investigations were carried out on herring, sprat, codfishes and flatfishes. Studies were also made on benthos and plankton, and a network of oceanographic observations was established in the Skagerrack/Kattegatt and in the Baltic. A number of experiments were conducted with fishing gear. Results from fishery investigations were used as background material i.a. for management measures. A comprehensive study on fish and fisheries in northern countries was published in two volumes of “Fiskar och Fiske i Norden”, edited by K.A. Anderssson, 3 edns.

    The third period, starting in 1948 when the Royal Fishery Board (now the Swedish National Board of Fisheries) was established, commenced with a large number of taggings of herring and cod, in order to study migrations and growth. Through excavations of sub fossile waste the origin of the herring, present during the herring period of the eighteenth century, could be identified. In the context of environmental issues in the sea, it was found that our long term series on biological and oceanographical data was the most valuable material available. The oceanographic situation was monitored particularly in the Baltic. Following the increased exploitation of fish stocks, there was a pronounced shift of focus towards stock assessments. Some socio-economic studies were also made.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 17. Malm Renöfält, Birgitta
    et al.
    Ahonen, Jani
    Ekologiska flöden och ekologiskt anpassad vattenreglering: Underlag till vägledning om lämpliga försiktighetsmått och bästa möjliga teknik för vattenkraft2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report is to provide a knowledge base on ecological flows and ecologically adapted water regulation in watercourses used for hydroelectric power generation. The report begins by providing a background to what a watercourse's flow actually is, as well as connections between ecology and flow an how regulation of the flow for hydroelectric power generation affects flow regimes and ecosystems linked to running water. The purpose of this part of the report has not, however, been to give any kind of in-depth analysis of the impact on the ecosystem; it is instead intended to provide examples of impact based on changes to different variables in the flow regime.

    The next part of the report discusses existing methods and models for producing ecological flows for a more environmentally adapted regulation. This part begins by defining an environmentally adapted flow from an ecosystem perspective. This is followed by a review of methods and models used/developed, in which models and methods are put into groups based on their complexity and scope. 

    First, a few examples of “hydrological” methods are given. These methods are based primarily on the model of water flow data and constitute around a third of the methods developed. These are often called “desktop” or “look-up” methods. They are normally based on the mean water flow or various Q-index values, which represent a flow that is exceeded during a certain period of the year, expressed as a percentage or number of days. The disadvantage of these is that they do not satisfactorily reflect the flow's variability, especially as they are often based on the mean annual flow, or flow levels that occur over a whole year. A better and more dynamic way of using these values is to look at flow levels by season. There are, however, models that better take into account variability, which are therefore considered to have a greater ecological relevance. One example of an early model of this design is “Range of Variability” (RVA), where long series of daily water flow data are used to characterise ecologically relevant components in the flow regime. The natural scope of hydraulic variability is described via various hydraulic indices, which have been developed based on existing knowledge of the flow's significance for different ecosystem components and processes. A good hydrological foundation that both reflects the variability in the unaffected flow, and provides good knowledge of how regulation has changed flow dynamics, is the basis for producing ecological flows in regulated watercourses. Then, a few examples are provided that link flows to canyon morphology and to the habitat requirements of different organisms. 

    The final part of this section gives a few examples of holistic methods. These are primarily conceptual and the premise is that it is necessary to take into account the entire ecosystem and all flow variability, with the intention of not leaving out any important elements.  Developing these methods often involves both hydraulic methods and methods using flows and habitat requirements as tools for modelling an environmentally adapted flow.  Holistic modelling can be largely described as a process in which representatives of different relevant disciplines integrate their skills and methods, in order to arrive at a care plan for the watercourse together. The idea behind methods of a holistic nature represents a modern view of running water as a natural resource, in which the entire flow spectrum is tied to the ecosystem as a whole, and where several interested parties are represented. The best methods are also based on an adaptive view of the management of natural resources, where regulation regimes and water consumption are set based on an increased knowledge. When it comes to the regulation of water for hydroelectric power generation, this is undoubtedly the view that represents best environmental engineering practice. In addition to these methods, the problem of short-term regulation is discussed, and how this could be made more environmentally friendly, for example by avoiding zero flow periods, reducing the high flow/low flow quota, i.e., reducing the variation in water flow and the rate of change in the flow.

    This is followed by a chapter on the links between ecology and flow. Once large problem in terms of setting appropriate levels for environmentally adapted flows and ecosystem requirements is the matter of predicting how much water the ecosystem will need and when different flow levels should occur. A review of relevant literature – primarily on fish, macroinvertebrates and vegetation – reveal that the greatest effect by far of changes in the flow is reductions seen in all measured ecological parameters, but that it is difficult to extract more general quantitative connections from the literature, for example in the form of threshold values. The conclusion was that existing literature does not provide a sufficient basis for drawing general quantitative conclusions that are useful for setting general guidelines for ecological flows.  Levels and frequencies of different flows must be set based on the specific conditions within a region or catchment area. As the results clearly show how much of a negative impact anthropogenic flow changes have on the ecosystem, the authors of this material emphasise the importance of establishing new research programmes to determine these connections, and doing so on a regional basis. They also highlight the lack of knowledge on flow changes and their impact on ecosystem processes.

    The next section of the report gives examples of how to develop and implement environmentally adapted flows and regulation regimes. This is currently done primarily in North America, Australia and South Africa, but a number of good examples can also be found in New Zealand, Norway, Spain, Italy, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. We have not included examples from regions that show great climatological differences from Swedish conditions and where artificial irrigation is primarily responsible for impacting the ecosystem. We have chosen to limit the examples to the northern hemisphere, primarily to those that have somewhat similar climatological and hydrological conditions to Sweden.

    Finally, a longer summary and conclusion are provided against the background of Swedish conditions. Practical application of environmentally adapted flows should take into account the different characteristics of the flow, such as magnitude, frequency, rate of change and duration. The application should also be adaptive, i.e., it is important to follow up on the response in both the abiotic and biotic environments when introducing environmentally adapted flows, regardless of the method or model chosen to determine the environmental benefits, and adapt levels according to the results. The methods should be combined with a general overview of the potential for improvement in the watercourse and an assessment of the nature conservation value, to make sure that the assessment of environmental benefit is as accurate as possible. Different areas of interest must also be weighed up, which is why an analysis of the consequences – both positive and negative – of the proposed flow changes should be included. Other than implementing an approach based on a holistic view, there are other measures of a more general nature that should produce ecological benefits in practically all regulated watercourses.  One such measure is to avoid zero flow events, particularly where there are reaches downstream, and to introduce minimum flows past all power stations. These flows could be based on more basic hydrological methods, such as some form of low flow index. Another measure is to implement the planned release of “spring floods”. These would probably not need to occur every year. If the equivalent of a medium flow was to be repeated every 3–5 years, it would likely have a positive effect on the ecosystem. Limitations to raising and lowering speeds during short-term regulation is another example of a more general measure that would likely mitigate the negative effects of hydroelectric power generation.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 18.
    Mathews, Ruth E.
    et al.
    Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI).
    Weinberg, Josh
    Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI).
    Murillo, Jose
    Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI).
    Liss-Lymer, Birgitta
    Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI).
    Building momentum to accelerate adoption of source-to-sea management: Lessons learned and recommendations from seven case studies2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The analysis of the seven cases presented in this report has been useful for understanding the opportunities and challenges for implementing source-to-sea management. It has also provided insights into the strengths and limitations of the six-step source-to-sea approach. While there was not a case that has completed the entire six-steps of the source-to-sea approach ordemonstrated measurable benefits to the source-to-sea system from implementing priorityactions, the cases do provide sufficient evidence that there is added value in applying the six step source-to-sea approach to address source-to-sea challenges.

    The analysis of the cases has shown that while the six-step source-to-sea approach is relatively new it will continue to evolve as it is applied in more locations and to address a range of sustainable development challenges. Given the value that can come from holistic managementof source-to-sea systems, investment in such development appears to be well founded. This investment will reap benefits by unlocking the barriers to implementing source-to-sea management. In the first instance, investment should be made in building up a larger library of cases that will demonstrate the benefits of source-to-sea management. Beyond this, severalareas would be particularly informative and supportive of reaching the goal of managing land, freshwater, coastal, and marine environments from source to sea.

    Diverse and inclusive partnerships that build on the collective and individual strengths ofmultilateral agencies, financing institutions, national and sub-national governments, regionalentities, non-governmental organizations, research institutions, and private sector are needed forholistic management of land, freshwater, coastal and marine resources to take hold. Collecting and sharing a library of cases and lessons learned through these partnerships can benefit those who are hesitant to embark on applying the source-to-sea approach or are resistant to source-to-sea management because they are unsure of how it works or the benefits it can offer. Real world examples will demystify what is intended and confirm that taking steps toward source-to-seamanagement is pragmatic when facing source-to-sea challenges. This exchange can improve understanding of key bottlenecks to source-to-sea management and the potential avenues for addressing them.

    Enhancement of the knowledge of the linkages in the biophysical, social (stakeholder), andgovernance systems is a requisite for holistic management of source-to-sea systems. Research needs to be directed toward areas that can be used to inform science-based policies, management, and investments that create benefits for the whole source-to-sea system. Data collection, analysis, and monitoring need to be done in a manner that provides a coherent view ofthe source-to-sea system and enables tracking of source-to-sea impacts and benefits. Funding programmes for research should include research topics that address critical knowledge gaps onsource-to-sea linkages in the biophysical, social (stakeholders), and governance systems.

    Commitment to incorporate source-to-sea perspectives into prominent global, regional, andnational policy processes can arise through the elaboration of the opportunities offered bysource-to-sea management to address key global challenge areas of priority to countries,including climate adaptation/mitigation, biodiversity conservation, pollution, and povertyalleviation. Issues tackled at these higher levels of policy development can guide actions to be taken at local levels. Similarly, experiences at the local level, drawing from the local context and its priorities can feed into the design of national, regional, and global agendas and tracking mechanisms. Clarifying what is required in the enabling environment for source-to-sea management in dialogue with regional, national, and sub-national actors and investing in these can strengthen the impact of global commitments.

    To follow up on these commitments, there must be finance mechanisms and enabling environments that incentivize investment in measures that result in optimal outcomes for the source-to-sea system. Addressing development challenges requires finance that is not limited by economic borders, specific sectors, or social geographies and includes assessment of risks and benefits across the source-to-sea continuum, evaluates trade-offs, and fosters new forms of collaboration. Funding strategies need to go beyond the often sector-specific objectives to enable financing of cross-sectoral and system-wide actions. Eliciting commitments from financial institutions to review investments with a source-to-sea lens is crucial for accelerating the adoption of source-to-sea management and could help shape interventions that tackle key development challenges in a more holistic manner.

    Capacity development among public, private, and civil society actors to address upstream-downstream linkages and facilitate cross-sectoral coordination will increase local, national, and regional expertise and spur movement toward source-to-sea management. Guidance on the application of the six-steps source-to-sea approach in diverse settings and in response to key development challenges can strengthen the application of the source-to-sea approach and support its application to new issues and contexts. Having these materials would support capacity development efforts of regional, national, and local stakeholders. Training programmes can target specific source-to-sea challenges, as well as particular contexts or perspectives for those challenges. They can also be modified to match the current source-to-sea management level and support movement along the readiness continuum.

    Finally, concrete steps to address development challenges through projects, policy, strategy, planning, or other decision-making processes using the source-to-sea approach should be taken.The source-to-sea approach can be applied to develop a shared understanding of a source-to-sea challenge, come to agreement on a vision for the desired future and design a theory of change that proposes the conditions for success. This can then lead to establishing the enabling environment and achieving the desired changes in behavior and practices needed to achieve the desired future. Each time a development challenge is addressed by accounting for source-to-sea linkages and aiming toward holistic source-to-sea management, new lessons will be learned. Through monitoring and evaluation, the evidence base will grow, which can then be used inraising awareness of the benefits of addressing source-to-sea linkages through holistic management thereby building a momentum in the adoption of source-to-sea management.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 19. Nolbrant, Peter
    Co-governance and co-creative working methods for improved waters: Results and learnings from the Water Co-Governance project in Sweden2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Water Co-Governance (WaterCoG) is an Interreg EU project in which the UK, Germany, the Netherlands, Denmark and Sweden participated from 2016 to 2020. Each participating country has implemented pilot projects to investigate how to best increase local participation and collaboration to improve aquatic environments. This report is about the project work carried out within Sweden. The pilot projects in Sweden have been carried out by three water councils, who have independently defined problems while developing visions and work areas. The councils have approached this work differently and looked at different questions/issues. As a result, the projects cover a wide range of areas and work practices. The project has included a number of different people, organisations, meetings, networks and sub-projects. This has revealed a number of recurring patterns, which are highlighted in the report:

    There is a tremendous degree of involvement in the pilot groups and a clear desire to work cooperatively to increase knowledge and identify solutions. The level of involvement around a particular place, where people live or own land, is particularly evident. There is often a desire to include more people in the groups and create a climate where everyone can have their say. Groups that contain this kind of diversity offer a broader knowledge base and a variety of perspectives. The level of confidence within the groups gradually increases when participants learn from each other and see the results of what they can create together.

    Issues relating to water are often expanded to include the environment and biodiversity, both in aquatic environments and terrestrial environments. Issues raised also relate to sustainable use through agriculture, forestry and electricity production. Ecosystem services, such as the province’s water level management, water purification and access to recreation and learning, are also relevant. The groups often emphasise the connection to the cultural heritage around water. Another important issue highlighted in the groups is local influence. Collaboration and participation on issues relating to water will therefore be a starting point for sustainable development and democratic development.

    There is a need for forums that transcend borders between different groups and stakeholders, between authorities and the local community – including landowners, businesses and residents. These forums are needed to facilitate collaboration, to develop a holistic view and to identify new, creative solutions. The water councils are clearly already functioning as forums, but they also have tremendous potential to be developed further.

    Water councils need access to an increased number of stable platforms with greater continuity. This needs to be carried out, for example, through long-term funding, by creating time for meetings and by increasing the visibility of the water councils so they can secure a more clearly defined role. It is also important adopt work practices or tools that help create a climate characterised by listening, dialogue and openness where individuals can participate on equal terms and where no individual stakeholders or persons take precedence.

    A lack of time among participants and need for coordinators are issues that are repeatedly highlighted. Someone needs to handle invitations, summarise notes, prepare meetings, submit applications for funding and provide continuity. Compensation may also need to be arranged for individuals who set aside working hours to attend water council meetings.

    The importance of networking and communication is clear. The forums that the water councils create are a part of, and have an important role in, the cooperative networks of, for example, landowners, businesses, schools, local householder's associations, consultants, associations and authorities. For networks to function effectively, communication is key. When problems arise, it is often due to a lack of communication. Effective communication is clear, easy to understand and based on dialogue instead of one-way communication.

    The project has yielded many results. Around 650 people have participated in a variety of ways. Significantly more people have been informed about the work in the project. Over 20 sub-projects have been developed within the three water councils. Grant applications and grants awarded for various projects amount to SEK 6.6 million. There is a significant increase in invested funds. For the funding the water authority has allocated to support the water councils, including the grant received through Water Co-Governance, twelve times as much money has flowed in through, for example, approved applications for other grants. To this we can add all the hours allocated on a voluntary basis or within the framework of an individual’s employment for municipal officials or private employees who work with water issues as part of their position.

    This work has yielded a number of results, including inventories, water sampling, information materials and education/training. A variety of measures have been implemented, such as the opening up of fish migration routes, restoration of biotopes in watercourses, construction of wetlands, structural liming of fields, decontamination of environmentally hazardous waste, controlling stormwater discharge and saving dead wood and trees by watercourses. This strengthens ecosystem services, such as food production, water purification, water retention landscapes, drinking water, biodiversity, pollination and recreation.

    Measures have often been implemented on the initiative of individual landowners, but increased local collaboration in applying for funding and the implementation of measures has been highlighted as an important aspect. Through the forums created by local water groups and water councils during the project period, networks have formed consisting of landowners, consultants, authorities and water council members, which have contributed to the initiation of measures.

    The exchange of knowledge that has occurred thanks to the forums and dialogue between people with different interests and backgrounds has added new perspectives while increasing interest and knowledge about water issues and the activities of other participants. The river walks have been an especially positive development, where participants are able to explore the natural environment together. The walks have helped build relationships, both with the natural environments and each other, which provides a source of inspiration and increased knowledge.

    Municipalities, authorities and the state need to support, facilitate and understand the value of these forums for participation and collaboration. This may include recognising the water councils and the local community as a major resource that is able to engage with issues, such as community planning, at an early stage. It could also mean that the state significantly increases long-term funding and strives to avoid rapid changes in grants and rules. Sudden cuts to funding or short-term increases creates a risk of reduced quality, inefficiency and stress. Administrative hurdles should also be reduced, for example, by establishing long-term grant rules, simplifying grant and procurement rules and reducing micromanagement. There is also a need for increased collaboration within and between authorities by allocating more time for internal collaboration and dialogue, with broader competence. By ensuring better collaboration at all levels, the work is likely to become more efficient, creative and sustainable.

    The effort is a long-term learning process, which makes it essential that structures are created to allow knowledge to be carried over, rather than starting from scratch in new projects. This will also contribute to the creation of context and meaningfulness, which is a key to the willingness to participate.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 20. Nolbrant, Peter
    Lokal samverkan och medskapande arbetssätt för bättre vatten: Resultat och tankar från projektet Water Co-Governance i Sverige2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport redogör för resultat och erfarenheter från de svenska pilotprojekten i Interregprojektet Water Co-Governance som genomfördes 2016-2020. Vattenråden som deltagit som pilotprojekt har arbetat med frågan hur lokalt deltagande och samverkan för att förbättra vattenmiljöerna kan öka.

    Water Co-Governance är ett EU Interreg-projekt där England, Tyskland, Holland, Danmark och Sverige medverkat från 2016 till 2020. Varje land har arbetat med pilotprojekt för att undersöka hur lokalt deltagande och samverkan för att förbättra vattenmiljöerna kan öka. Rapporten handlar om det svenska arbetet.

    Pilotprojekten i Sverige har genomförts av tre vattenråd som själva har definierat problem, utformat visioner och arbetsområden. De har arbetat på olika sätt och med olika frågor. Detta gör att projekten täcker in en stor bredd av områden och arbetssätt. Projektet har innefattat en mängd personer, organisationer, möten, nätverk och delprojekt. Genom detta visar sig återkommande mönster som lyfts fram i rapporten:

    • Det finns ett stort engagemang
    • Frågorna om vatten breddas ofta
    • Det behövs mötesplatser över gränser
    • Vattenråden behöver få stabilare plattformar med större kontinuitet
    • Det finns brist på tid hos deltagare och det finns behov av samordnare
    • Betydelsen av nätverk och kommunikation är tydlig
    • Många resultat bland annat i antal deltagande personer (650 st) och beviljande ansökningar för projekt (6,6 miljoner kronor)
    • Flera åtgärder har genomförts
    • Utbyte av kunskaper ger nya perspektiv
    • Kommuner, myndigheter och regeringen behöver stödja
    • Arbetet är en långsiktig lärandeprocess.
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 21. Prutzer, Madeleine
    Lokal samverkan i vattenförvaltningen med vattenråden i fokus: Utvärdering av projektet Water Co-Governance i Sverige2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    EU:s ramdirektiv för vatten (vattendirektivet) betonar vikten av samarbete, samverkan och delaktighet på alla nivåer under arbetet med att skydda och förbättra vattenkvaliteten i EU. Det framhåller också att det ska finnas tillgång till information och att samråd med allmänheten ska ske. I Water Co-Governance-projektet har Havs- och vattenmyndigheten och Vattenmyndigheten för Västerhavet samarbetat med Mölndalsåns, Himleåns och Ätrans vattenråd för att undersöka hur lokalt engagemang kring vatten kan öka. En av många lärdomar i projektet är att lokal förankring ökar kvaliteten på, och genomförandet av, åtgärder.

    Vägen till att uppnå god ekologisk status kräver åtgärder i våra vatten. Erfarenheterna från det praktiska arbetet är viktiga när bidragsformer och styrmedel ska tas fram. Denna rapport utvärderar Water Co-Governance-projektets arbete i Sverige med ökat stöd till vattenråden och utvecklande av verktyg för det lokala arbetet, ett arbete som redovisades i en rapport som publicerades i april 2020. Utvärderingen tar upp förutsättningar, hinder och behov för vattenråden, ledarskapets betydelse i samverkansprocesser, samverkansverktygen och kunskapens roll och betydelsen av att skapa förtroende och transparens. Den ger också konkreta rekommendationer för det lokala samverkansarbetet.

    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten och Vattenmyndigheterna har tillsammans ett stort ansvar för att samordna och genomföra arbetet med att nå våra mål för vattenmiljön. Många satsningar pågår som handlar om arbete i pilotområden och ökat lärande i det lokala arbetet. Water Co-Governance-projektet har i denna kontext bidragit till ytterligare förståelse av betydelsen av lokal förankring i det konkreta åtgärdsarbetet.Vi vill rikta ett stort tack till de som varit delaktiga i projektet, och de lärdomar som nu kommer både oss och andra till del.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 22.
    Rosenhall, Eva
    Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management.
    Havsplaneringsprojekt: Erfarenheter från Plan Bothnia och BaltSeaPlan2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här rapporten har vi sammanställt erfarenheter från två avslutade projekt om havsplanering: Plan Bothnia och BaltSeaPlan. De genomfördes gemensamt av länder runt Östersjön och svenska havsområden har varit en del av projekten.

    Projekten har omfattat en mängd planeringsfrågor i syfte att bygga upp kunskaper som kan komma till nytta för havsplanering över nationsgränserna. De erfarenheter man fått kan vara användbara i den svenska havsplaneringsprocessen.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 23.
    Schmidtbauer Crona, Jan
    Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management.
    Tillämpning av ekosystemansatsen i havsplaneringen2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport beskrivs hur ekosystemansatsen kan tillämpas i svensk havsplanering. I inledande avsnitt redogörs för hur ekosystemansatsen beskrivits internationellt och hur den tolkats i Sverige.  Ekosystemansatsen, eller the Ecosystem Approach, har fått stort genomslag i politiken kring användning och förvaltning av naturresurser. Den nämns som vägledande princip i allt från EU:s fiskeripolitik1 till praktiskt inriktad lokal förvaltning av regnskog i Malaysia2. Ekosystemansatsen är också en utgångspunkt för EU:s havsmiljödirektiv3 och har lyfts fram i havsplaneringsutredningens betänkande Planering på djupet4.  Ekosystemansatsen lämnar utrymme för tolkning och ställer krav på konkretisering i specifika tillämpningssammanhang. Orsaker till det är bland annat att tillgängliga definitioner är generella till sin karaktär och omfattar flera dimensioner. Att tillämpa ekosystemansatsen i svensk havsplanering förutsätter därför konkretisering utifrån havsplaneringens karaktär, avgränsning, process och innehåll. Huvudfrågan är att analysera vilka möjligheter som havsplaneringen ger för tillämpning av ekosystemansatsen. Samtidigt är det just havsplaneringens karaktär, avgränsning, process och innehåll som ekosystemansatsen ska sätta sin prägel på. En tolkning och konkretisering av ekosystemansatsen i ett havsplaneringssammanhang är också en förutsättning för att i senare skede kunna utvärdera hur framgångsrik tillämpningen av ekosystemansatsen har varit.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 24.
    Silfverblad (f.d. Bleckert), Stefan
    et al.
    Naturkonsult AB.
    Henrikson, Lennart
    Natur och Människa AB.
    Blå-Gul-Grön Målklassning: ett sätt att värna vatten med höga naturvärden2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med metoden Blå-Gul-Grön Målklassning kan naturvärdena i särskilt värdefulla sjöar och vattendrag och deras tillrinningsområde bevaras och utvecklas. Målklassning är ett enkelt verktyg som kan användas av alla med intresse för vatten-, natur- och fiskevård.

    Vattenmiljöer har länge behandlats separat i skogs- och jordbrukets planeringsprocesser eftersom det har saknats ett verktyg för helhetsplanering av markanvändningen. Denna rapport presenterar en metodik hur man genom helhetsplanering av vattenlandskapet med arbetssättet Blå-Gul-Grön Målklassning integrerat kan fortsätta nyttja naturresurser på ett klokt och miljöanpassat sätt, säger Per Olsson, biträdande avdelningschef på Havs- och vattenmyndigheten, HaV, som bistått i framtagandet av rapporten.

    I rapporten beskrivs metodiken Blå-Gul-Grön Målklassning som syftar till att komma fram till rätt miljöåtgärder, i rätt omfattning och på rätt ställe i ett avrinningsområde. Metodiken innebär kortfattat att man besöker alla fastighetens enheter som vattenmiljöer, åkrar, ängar, och skogsbestånd. Det vill säga det blå, det gula och det gröna på kartan. Där bedöms naturvärde och känslighet med hjälp av ett enkelt protokoll. Med känslighet menas hur stor risken är att brukandet av den aktuella marken kan påverka det skyddsvärda vattnet. Sedan föreslår man målklass och lämpliga miljöåtgärder. Resultatet läggs in på kartor som används i planeringen för att värna sjön och dess avrinningsområde samtidigt som det visar var man kan bedriva en effektiv produktion av livsmedel och virke på ett hållbart sätt. Användning av metoden innebär en praktisk avvägning i det enskilda fallet för att nå målen för miljön och produktionen på fastighetsnivå.

    Metodiken har utarbetats och testats i Likstammens vattenlandskap i Södermanland, ett mindre avrinningsområde högt upp i vattensystemet. Området har valts som projektområde för att det bland annat är ett Natura 2000-område och består av en mosaik av vatten, jordbruksmark och skogsmark samt olika typer av markägare. Avrinningsområdet är förhållandevis litet och markägareantalet litet vilket ger goda förutsättningar för användning av den Blå-Gul-Gröna Målklassningen. Förhoppningen är att markägare på frivillig basis ska få ökad kunskap och förståelse för hur brukandet av marken påverkar vattenmiljöerna och hur de genom en helhetsanvändning kan minska de negativa effekterna.

    – Här lyfter vi Målklassning från enskilda objekt till landskapsnivå. Vi blickar ut över hela Likstammens avrinningsområde och identifierar landskapsobjekt som bör uppmärksammas i mark- och vattenanvändningen, säger Lennart Henrikson, årets vinnare av vattenmiljöpriset Sjöstjärnan och författare av rapporten tillsammans med ekologen Stefan Silfverblad.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 25. Sterner, Harald
    Staten och havet mot en hållbar framtid2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten har i uppdrag att verka för att havet och dess naturresurser nyttjas på ett hållbart sätt. Myndigheten arbetar därför bland annat med frågor som rör havsplanering och gör förberedelser för en kommande statlig havsplanering.   Den planerade Statlig havsplanering blir en ny uppgift inom svensk förvaltning. Statens intresse av fysisk planering av naturresurser går emellertid längre tillbaka i tiden och har också tidigare omfattat havet om än i andra former än vad som föreslås i utredningarna Planering på djupet – fysisk havsplanering av havet (SOU 2010:91) och Kunskap på djupet — kunskapsunderlag för havsplanering (SOU 2011:56).  Denna promemoria sätter den föreslagna havsplaneringen i ett historiskt perspektiv och ger en kortfattad och kronologisk beskrivning av viktiga hållpunkter i utvecklingen av svensk havspolitik och fysisk planering av havet. Förhoppningsvis kan rapporten ge alla aktörer, som ska bidra i havsplaneringen, en gemensam förståelse för den historiska utvecklingen.  Införandet av statlig havsplanering med dagens innebörd har en lång historia som utgör grunden för ett fortsatt arbete med havsplanering.  Rapporten har utarbetats av Harald Sterner, som också svarar för innehållet. Innehållet är en bearbetning och uppdatering av ett material som författaren presenterat vid en workshop i Boverkets regi i Karlskrona den 15 maj 2008.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 26.
    Svansson, Artur
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Government Agencies, Fiskeristyrelsen.
    Canal Models of Sea Level and Salinity Variations in the Baltic and Adjacent Waters1972Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many years ago the present author started work on sea level (SL) problems (Svansson 1959). The Skagerrak, the Kattegat, the Belt Sea and the Baltic were treated as canals. Sea levels and water transports were computed by numerical integration (an explicit method), the sectioning being mostly copied from Neumann (1941). Later the method was improved (Svansson 1966 and 1968) but only some parts of the area were included.

    In this paper the results of the numerical computations of sea levels and transports hitherto published by the present author are summarized (Ch. 25). Then work with another numerical method, an implicit one allowing longtime steps applied on a simple system of canals, is presented (Ch. 26). Furthermore this model is combined with a model for salinity variations, among other things used in an attempt to explain an interesting connection between the variations of the sea level of the Baltic and of the salinity of the Kattegat. The mathematical background and the numerical scheme will be found in Chapters 21—23, while Chapter 1 is a descriptive part presenting background information.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 27.
    Svansson, Artur
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Institutes, Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, HMI.
    Physical And Chemical Oceanography Of The Skagerrak And The Kattegat: I. Open Sea Conditions1975Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 28.
    Svedäng, Henrik
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Government Agencies, National Board of Fisheries.
    Spridning av simblåsemasken Anguillicola crassus hos ål i svenska kustvatten1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The swimbladder nematode Anguillicola crassus was first observed in Sweden in 1987. The dispersal of the eel parasite was noted to be confined to fresh waters and to cooling water effluent areas in the Baltic Sea, whereas the colonization at the Swedish west coast developed very slowly, despite the presence of the parasite also in this coastal region. The present compilation of data on this particular parasite in eel confirms the very slowspread of A. crassus at the Swedish west coast. The prevalence of the parasite as well as the intensity (the number of parasites per parasitized eel) is much lower on the west coast, especially in Kattegat and Skagerrak, than in the Baltic Sea. This observation supports the view that the spread of A. crassus is prevented by high salinity (i.e. above 8-10 PSU). It can also be noticed that the only studied locality free of A. crassus on the west coastis in the Koster archipelago, which could be due to the great depths which surround the islands, isolating them from the mainland.

    It was also observed that the parasite now is firmly established at several sites in the Baltic Sea, and that the spread of A. crassus cannot be solely linked to cooling water discharges as previously stated. It also appeared as if the infected eels have the ability to defend themselves against the parasite since the intensity as well as the prevalence of the parasite tended to stabilize or even decline at the most infected sites in the Baltic Sea.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 29.
    Söderqvist, Tore
    et al.
    Enveco Environmental Economics Consultancy.
    Soutukorva, Åsa
    Enveco Environmental Economics Consultancy.
    Moreno-Arancibia, Patricia
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Companies, DHI Sweden AB.
    Liungman, Olof
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Companies, DHI Sweden AB.
    Ahrensberg, Nick
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Companies, DHI Sweden AB.
    Paulsson, Lars
    Resurs AB.
    Marine tourism and recreation in Sweden: A study for the Economic and Social Analysis of the Initial Assessment of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides input regarding the marine recreation and tourism components of the ecosystem service approach to the Economic and Social Analysis of the Initial Assessment of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive. The main content of the report is the following. See also Figure 0.1 for an illustration that also provides an interpretation of the report in terms of the Drivers-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework.  Chapter 1 presents the general methodology followed in the report. It also gives an introduction to Swedes’ recreation in or at the sea.  Chapter 2 presents a number of definitions related to marine recreation and tourism. Six sectors of marine tourism are identified:  A. Cruise-ship traffic in marine waters B. International passenger ferry traffic in marine waters C. National passenger ferry traffic in marine waters D. Other commercial passenger transportation in marine waters E. Leisure boating in marine waters F. Holiday housing associated with marine recreation G. Commercial accommodation (e.g. hotels, camping sites, etc.) associated with marine recreation H. Same-day visits associated with marine recreation  For sectors A-E, the connection to marine waters is unambiguous since the activities in these sectors take place in marine waters. Sectors F-H have a less direct connection but are still relevant to include because a substantial proportion of these sectors is likely to depend on the enjoyment of marine recreation. However, including sectors F-H requires a reasonable and objective delimitation of these sectors. It was chosen to use  two alternative geographical definitions for these sectors; one (called MAX) that is likely to result in an overestimate of the sectors in relation to their association with marine recreation and one (called MIN) that is likely to result in an underestimate. The MAX definition is to include those parts of sectors F-H which are located in Swedish coastal municipalities or on islands in marine waters. The MIN definition is to include those parts of sectors F-H which are located in subdrainage basins that drain directly into coastal or transitional water bodies (typology from the Water Framework Directive, 2000/60/EG) (delavrinningsområden som avvattnas direkt till kustvattenförekomster eller övergångsvatten) or on islands in marine waters. Based on the classification of marine ecosystem services in Garpe (2008) and SEPA (2009) and a survey of people’s use of marine waters (SEPA, 2010a, 2010b), Chapter 2 identifies the following seven subcategories of the ecosystem service C1 Enjoyment of recreational activities:  C1.1  Swimming C1.2  Diving C1.3  Windsurfing, water skiing C1.4  Boating C1.5  Fishing C1.6 Being at the beach or seashore for walking, picnicking, sunbathing, visiting touristic or cultural sites, etc. C1.7  Using water-based transportation  Chapter 3 describes the extent of use of Swedish marine waters by the sectors of marine tourism. The findings are summarized in Tables 0.1 and 0.2, where the former is based on the MIN definition for sectors E-H and the latter is based on the MAX definition for these sectors. When interpreting the figures, note that turnover and employment are defined differently for the different sectors: For sector A, they are about passengers’ expenditures ashore and the jobs these expenditures create; for sectors B-D, turnover and employment are for the companies found in these sectors – for employment this implies an underestimation because a substantial part of the employment is accounted for in the country where ships are registered; and for sectors E-H, turnover and employment are about tourists’ spending when boating, having holiday housing, making use of commercial accommodation and making same-day visits and the jobs associated with this turnover. The tables illustrate the considerable extent of coastal and marine tourism in Sweden. For example, the estimated turnover of this part of the Swedish tourism industry is between SEK 58 578 million (MIN) and SEK 75 153 million. The turnover of the Swedish tourist industry as a whole in 2010 was SEK 255 000 million (Tillväxtverket, 2011), which means that coastal and marine tourism accounted for between 23 % (MIN) and 29 % (MAX) of the total turnover.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 30.
    Enabling local blue growth in developing countries: A thematic review2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Blue growth – the prospect of economic revenue and wellbeing from the sustainable use of ocean resources – has caught the interest of most coastal and island nations of the world, including many developing countries. The sea alone does not, however, spur socioeconomic development in coastal communities. A large body of scientific literature explores the circumstances under which a community’s access to natural resources actually leads to local economic growth. This study specifically examines the literature targeting the communal-level outcome of aquatic resource use in developing countries, with a focus on identifying the prerequisites for socioeconomic wellbeing resulting from the exploitation of such resources.

    More specifically, this study strives to identify the institutional and infrastructure factors that promote local blue growth in developing countries. It consists of a thematic review of 90 scientific articles involving systematic mapping, regression analysis and content analysis.

    The study concludes that the incomes and wellbeing of coastal communities in developing countries depend on well-functioning value chains and the degree of social development. The results also show that the sustainability of marine and coastal resources is associated with the quality of resource management, the degree of coherence of policy and legal frameworks and the manner in which they are communicated. Inadequate resource management and incoherent policies and laws, on the other hand, are associated with lower incomes, wealth and employment.

    The study identifies a number of critical factors related to the type and quality of governance. Blue growth at local level benefits from governance frameworks that are coherent and reliable, leadership that is dynamic and legitimate, an administration that is reliable and enforcement that is efficient. It is also of great importance that decisions affecting the livelihoods of coastal communities be adapted to the local circumstances and that communities be given adequate opportunity to influence those decisions. Coastal-community development depends on the degree of social cohesion and equity in access to resources, as well as on the capacity of individuals and organisations. Such capacity is important not only in the private sphere for the development of sustainable blue businesses, but also in the public sphere for the design and implementation of public policies that are evidence-based and adapted to context. A further conclusion of this study is that local blue growth benefits from the existence of well-functioning value chains, markets that are open and accessible, and infrastructure that is adequate and well maintained.

    Based on these results, the study proposes the following eight recommendations for consideration by authorities and development agents working for local blue growth. These recommendations are further elaborated in Chapter 6.

    1. Ensure that legal frameworks and policies affecting the blue economy are coherent, clear and predictable.

    2. Support the development of well-functioning value chains for blue economy products and services.

    3. Support the creation and development of organisations for blue growth in the local community.

    4. Appreciate the importance of high-quality leadership.

    5. Engage local communities in decisions affecting their blue economy.

    6. Enhance the capacity and technical skills of individuals and institutions of the blue economy.

    7. Provide and maintain the infrastructure necessary for local blue growth.

    8. Build local blue growth using the whole toolbox – the above recommendations for advancement of local blue growth should not be viewed in isolation but addressed simultaneously.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 31.
    FLYTTNING AV MARINA ORGANISMER: ICES riktlinjer för introduktion och flyttning av marina organismer 1994. Internationella havsforskningsrådet/International Council for the Exploration of the Sea/Conseil International pour l’Exploration de la Mer1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Intresset för marint vattenbruk har ökat mycket kraftigt under de senaste decennierna. Inom fisket och vattenbruket kan arter som introduceras, dvs. överförs till nya regioner, liksom organismer som flyttas inom sina breda utbredningsområden utgöra nya och viktiga resurser ihavet. Introduktioner och flyttningar kan emellertid leda till negativa effekter på såväl den ursprungliga floran och faunan i ett område som på människans hälsa och nyttjandet av resurserna i havet. Till de negativa effekterna hör att skadliga organismer kan åtfölja värdarten och därigenom sprida sjukdomar. Vidare kan det uppkomma negativa ekologiska och genetiska effekter genom att introducerade eller flyttade arter rymmer från odlingar.

    Internationella havsforskningsrådet (ICES) har alltsedan början av 1970-talet arbetat med att få fram riktlinjer för introduktioner och flyttningar av havslevande arter. De senaste riktlinjerna från 1994, vilka härmed översatts till svenska, innebär omarbetningar av tillägg och tidigare riktlinjer. Bl. a. har den genetiska aspekten uppmärksammats alltmer.

    Det är Fiskeriverkets förhoppning att denna publikation skall vara till stor nytta och vägledning.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 32.
    Havsplanering - Nuläge 2014: Statlig planering i territorialhav och ekonomisk zon2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ökad användning av havet

    Intresset för att utveckla nyttjandet av havet som en resurs för fler arbetstillfällen, ökad välfärd och livskvalitet ökar. Därmed ökar även anspråken i våra havsområden. Sverige har en lång kuststräcka och förutsättningar skiljer sig åt mellan de tre havsplanområdena Bottniska viken, Östersjön och Västerhavet. Den internationella dimensionen är viktig eftersom många länder nyttjar samma havsområden och samma ekosystem.

    Stora miljöutmaningar i havet

    Samtidigt står vi inför flera miljöutmaningar i havet och vikten av att nyttjandet sker inom ramen för vad ekosystemen tål framhålls alltmer.  Siktet inom EU är att uppnå god miljöstatus i de marina ekosystemen till år 2020 och gemensamma mål är uppsatta. I Sverige ska tillämpningen av miljökvalitetsnormer enligt havsmiljöförordningen leda oss dit. Framtida klimatförändringar ses idag som oundvikliga och kommer att vara en faktor som förändrar förutsättningarna i havsmiljön.

    Ekosystemtjänster visar betydelsen av biologisk mångfald

    I havet finns en stor biologisk mångfald som bidrar till olika typer av ekosystemtjänster, vilka i sin tur bidrar till människors välfärd. Begreppet ekosystemtjänster representerar ett försök att beskriva ekosystemen ur människans perspektiv och tydliggör vårt beroende av naturen. De beskriver ekosystemens direkta och indirekta bidrag till människors välbefinnande. Under arbetet med nulägesbeskrivningen har ekosystemtjänsterna biologisk mångfald, god vattenkvalitet, livsmedel och rekreation framstått som särskilt relevanta i förhållande till samverkande och konkurrerande intressen.

    Havsplanering — rumsliga avvägningar för hållbart nyttjande

    Alla intressen som gör anspråk på utrymme i havet har en koppling till havsplanering. I den här rapporten beskrivs kulturmiljö, friluftsliv och turism, yrkesfiske, vattenbruk, sjöfart, försvar, energi, infrastruktur, utvinning och lagring av material, forskning och miljöövervakning, samt naturskydd. Beskrivningarna av de olika intressena visar på en mängd varierande behov. Vissa av dem är av rumslig karaktär. De avser behov av visst område på eller i havsbotten, i vattenpelaren, på ytan eller ovanför ytan. Rumsliga krav kan även avse visst avstånd från kusten eller andra krav på närhet och tillgänglighet, som exempelvis till hamnar. Andra behov som maritima aktiviteter har är av mer kvalitativ karaktär. Behoven gäller förekomsten av en viss ekosystemtjänst, en viss egenskap hos havet, till exempel vatten av en viss kvalitet. Många av de potentiella intressekonflikter som finns i havet rör utrymme: olika intressen och aktiviteter som inte får plats i samma område. Det finns även många intressen som fungerar väl tillsammans och sådana som ger positiva synergieffekter. I framtiden kan det komma fler anspråk på att nyttja utrymme i havet. Hur stora utrymmesanspråk som kommer längre fram är det svårt att göra en uppskattning av i dagsläget.

    Utvecklad kunskap

    För utveckling av rumslig planering av havet behövs mer kunskaps- och planeringsunderlag inom alla intresseområden. Det gäller till exempel kunskap om de marina ekosystemen och hur olika verksamheters utveckling kan påverka förutsättningar för andra intressen.

    Fördjupningsområden

    Fördjupningsområdena indikerar vilka områden som är i störst behov av planering. De kan behöva prioriteras när det gäller framtagande av underlag och de kan behöva planeras med större detaljeringsgrad än övriga delar av havet.

    Slutsatser

    Utifrån beskrivningarna av nuläget och analysen drar Havs- och vattenmyndigheten följande slutsatser. Geografiska slutsatser presenteras i analyskapitlet.

    Slutsatser om potentiella målkonflikter och målsynergier

    • Hållbar utveckling är en uttalad målsättning för de flesta intressen. Att tvärsektoriellt tolka vad det innebär för havet, för att säkra ekonomisk och social hållbarhet inom ramarna för den ekologiska hållbarheten, är en grundläggande fråga i havsplaneringen.

    • Målkonflikter kan finnas mellan nytta på land respektive i havet, till exempel utvinning av naturgrus på land jämfört med utvinning i havet.

    • Att upprätthålla ekosystemtjänsterna som havet ger är en förutsättning för de flesta maritima aktiviteter och den samhällsnytta de ger. Att ta tillvara ekosystemtjänster utifrån olika intressens behov kan ge potential till ökad samhällsnytta. Samtidigt kan flera maritima aktiviteter ha negativ påverkan på miljömål och ekosystemtjänster. Havsplaneringen har därför en roll att utifrån dess mandat bidra till utveckling av ekosystemtjänster och att avstyra negativ påverkan på dem.

    Slutsatser om samverkande och konkurrerande intressen

    • Kortsiktig respektive långsiktig nytta av olika intressen och aktiviteter bör inom havsplaneringen analyseras utifrån de ekosystemtjänster som havet ger. Blå tillväxt förutsätter livskraftiga ekosystem.

    • I vissa geografiska områden finns särskilda behov av havsplanering för att bidra till avvägningar mellan olika intressens nytta och påverkan.

    Slutsatser om havsplaneringens mandat och möjligheter

    Havsplaneringen har stora möjligheter att påverka lokalisering av fasta installationer och områdesskydd.

    • Många av de rörliga aktiviteterna styrs av internationella överenskommelser, som sjöfartsreglering och EU:s fiskeripolitik. Även om havsplaneringen har begränsat direkt mandat att reglera rörliga aktiviteter finns stora möjligheter att peka på lämpliga förändringar. Havsplanerna som tas fram utifrån en helhetssyn på havet kommer att visa Sveriges ställningstaganden och utgöra underlag vid förhandling.

    • Många av de miljöproblem som finns i havet orsakas av verksamheter på land, vilket inte kan lösas genom havsplanering. Däremot bidrar aktiviteter och belastning från land till miljösituationen i havet och är på så sätt faktorer som måste tas hänsyn till i havsplaneringen.

    Slutsatser för fortsatt planering

    • Sverige har stora havsområden och i flera områden finns i dagsläget inte utrymmeskonflikter, men vissa områden kräver fördjupad planering. I första hand gäller det områden som är högt nyttjade och områden med stor sårbarhet och/eller hög riskfaktor.

    • Behovet av havsplanering beror på att trycket på nyttjande ökar samtidigt som vi har stora miljöproblem, samt att våra grannländer planerar angränsande havsområden.

    • Trots bristande kunskapsunderlag är det nödvändigt att påbörja planeringen utifrån den kunskap som finns.

    • Systematisk kunskapsuppbyggnad och kartläggning av marina naturvärden behövs för ekosystembaserad havsplanering.

    • Kompetens att arbeta sektorsintegrerat och framtidsinriktat med ett helhetsperspektiv på nationell planering behöver utvecklas på flera nivåer.

    • Gränsöverskridande frågor behöver koordineras med våra grannländer tidigt i planeringsprocessen.

    • Havsplaneringen i Östersjön är internationellt mer komplex på grund av fler grannländer som vi behöver förhålla oss till. Fler länder som planerar ökat nyttjande i angränsande havsområden medför behov av analys av kumulativa effekter.

    • Sett ur ett ekosystemperspektiv bör Sverige i havsplaneringen sträva efter att skapa samsyn på förutsättningar och nyttjande av haven med våra grannländer.

    • Potentiella fördjupningsområden har identifierats. De bör prioriteras när det gäller framtagande av underlag och de kan behöva planeras med större detaljeringsgrad än övriga delar av havet.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 33.
    Hydrographical Observations on Swedish Lightships and Fjord Stations in 19641966Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 34.
    Hydrographical Observations on Swedish Lightships and Fjord Stations in 19651967Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 35.
    Hydrographical Observations on Swedish Lightships and Fjord Stations in 19661968Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 36.
    Hydrographical Observations on Swedish Lightships and Fjord Stations in 19671969Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 37.
    Hydrographical Observations on Swedish Lightships and Fjord Stations in 19681970Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 38.
    Hydrographical Observations on Swedish Lightships and Fjord Stations in 19691971Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 39.
    Hydrographical observations on Swedish lightships in 19511953Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 40.
    Hydrographical Observations on Swedish Lightships in 19521954Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 41.
    Hydrographical Observations on Swedish Lightships in 19531954Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 42.
    Hydrographical Observations on Swedish Lightships in 19541955Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 43.
    Hydrographical Observations on Swedish Lightships in 19551956Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 44.
    Hydrographical Observations on Swedish Lightships in 19561957Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 45.
    Hydrographical Observations on Swedish Lightships in 19571958Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 46.
    Hydrographical Observations on Swedish Lightships in 19581959Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 47.
    Hydrographical Observations on Swedish Lightships in 19591961Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 48.
    Hydrographical Observations on Swedish Lightships in 19601962Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 49.
    Hydrographical Observations on Swedish Lightships in 19611963Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 50.
    Hydrographical Observations on Swedish Lightships in 19621964Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
12 1 - 50 of 61
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf