Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management

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  • 1.
    Ahlsén, Jimmy
    et al.
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Companies, Marine Monitoring AB.
    Bergkvist, Johanna
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Companies, Marine Monitoring AB.
    Granmo, Åke
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Companies, Marine Monitoring AB.
    Undersökning av biota och sediment i anslutning till dumpningsområden av kemisk ammunition på väst- och östkusten 20192020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine Monitoring AB has by the request of the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management conducted an investigation about how widespread the contamination of dumped chemical warfare agents (CWAs) are in the dumping areas of Måseskär and the Gotland Basin. Earlier investigation in the area outside of Måseskär has shown traces of degradables from the CWAs Clark I and/or Clark II in biological samples. Sample fishing has been done in the eastern parts of the dumping area outside of Måseskär that has not previously been studied, as well as in the Gotland Basin wherein gas bombs has been visually identified. Chemical analyses were done by the Finnish Institute for Verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention, University of Helsinki (VERIFIN).

    Suitable target species were picked based on their commercial value and their ecology. On the west coast Norwegian lobsters, northern prawn and hagfish were captured and analysed. On the east coast cod and European flounder were captured and analysed. The sample fishing was conducted using passive gear such as cages, traps and nets. Sediment samples were also collected in the Gotland Basin.

    The results from the chemical analyses of the biological samples showed traces of CWA in the form of Clark I and/or Clark II as well as Arsine oil. Traces of CWA occurred in a bulk sample of hagfish caught downstream of the wreck BAL141 on the west coast and in two of the six bulk samples of cod captured in the Gotland Basin. All of the sediment samples contained traces of Clark I and/or Clark II in the form of diphenylarsinic acid (3O) and of Arsine oil in the form of triphenylarsine oxide (4O) as well as methylated forms of Adamsite (2.1) and Clark (3.1). The samples contained measurable concentrations however below the limits of quantitation.

    The risks of spreading of the content of the dumped CWAs rise as time passes because of corrosion of encapsulating shells. Natural currents lead to higher risks downstream of affected areas, something that can additionally worsen by bottom activities such as trawling in the area. All of the sediment samples taken in the Gotland Basin contained traces of CWAs which indicate that large sections of the area are contaminated. The same substances detected in the sediments were also found in the tissue of biological samples caught at the same locations. Affected biological samples have now for the first time been found within the territorial boarder at the dumping area on the west coast. This means a greater regulatory control from governmental agencies as to how the area will be used in the future.

    The low concentrations of Clark I and/or Clark II detected during earlier studies 2016 and 2017 as well as in the present study does not mean a greater health risk at consumption according to the Swedish National Food Agency (personal communication, Salomon Sand, Swedish Food Agency, Sweden). Presence of the compounds does however imply that they can accumulate in the tissues of biological samples in the studied areas. Traces of CWAs should not be present at all in the organisms, neither in the wild or on the dinner table.

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  • 2.
    Lindquist, Armin
    Perfomers of environmental monitoring, Government Agencies, National Board of Fisheries.
    Anteckningar om äldre svenska marina fiskerivetenskapliga undersökningar: Glimtar från 200 år av fiskeriundersökningar1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The annotations cover the time from the middle of the 18th century to the end of the 1970’s. Three periods can be distinguished. -During the first period, from the middle of the 18th century until the beginning of the present century, taxonomic studies (PetrusArtedi) and descriptions of fish species occurring in Swedish waters were the dominating activities. From this period, annual reports are available on fisheries, at that time coastal only, from Norrland in the Baltic Sea to Bohuslän, in the Skagerrack. The first marine environmental issue was the question whether train oil waste was dangerous for the fishery during the herring period in the 18thcentury in Bohuslän. Herring periods, during which herring occurred in enormous quantities in the archipelago of Bohuslän, were considered to be caused, at least partly, by major oceanographic changes. Swedish oceanographers took the initiative for an international coordination of marine research.

    During the second period, from the beginning of this century until 1948, the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, ICES, was established, whereby efforts became internationally coordinated. Numerous biological investigations were carried out on herring, sprat, codfishes and flatfishes. Studies were also made on benthos and plankton, and a network of oceanographic observations was established in the Skagerrack/Kattegatt and in the Baltic. A number of experiments were conducted with fishing gear. Results from fishery investigations were used as background material i.a. for management measures. A comprehensive study on fish and fisheries in northern countries was published in two volumes of “Fiskar och Fiske i Norden”, edited by K.A. Anderssson, 3 edns.

    The third period, starting in 1948 when the Royal Fishery Board (now the Swedish National Board of Fisheries) was established, commenced with a large number of taggings of herring and cod, in order to study migrations and growth. Through excavations of sub fossile waste the origin of the herring, present during the herring period of the eighteenth century, could be identified. In the context of environmental issues in the sea, it was found that our long term series on biological and oceanographical data was the most valuable material available. The oceanographic situation was monitored particularly in the Baltic. Following the increased exploitation of fish stocks, there was a pronounced shift of focus towards stock assessments. Some socio-economic studies were also made.

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